ADVANCED HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Meaning Of Hrm
Human resources management (HRM) is a management function concerned with hiring, motivating and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human resource management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals.
- Objectives of HRM
The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of competent and willing workforce to an organization. The specific objectives include the following:
- Human capital: assisting the organization in obtaining the right number and types of employees to fulfill its strategic and operational goals.
- Developing organizational climate: helping to create a climate in which employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their skills to the fullest and to employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently.
- Helping to maintain performance standards and increase productivity through effective job design: providing adequate orientation, training and development; providing performance- related feedback; and ensuring effective two-way communication.
- Helping to establish and maintain a harmonious employer/employee relationship
- Helping to create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment
- Developing programs to meet the economic, psychological, and social needs of the employees and helping the organization to retain the productive employees
- Ensuring that the organization is in compliance with provincial/territorial and federal laws affecting the workplace (such as human rights, employment equity, occupational health and safety, employment standards, and labour relations legislation). To help the organization to reach its goals
- To provide organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees
- To increase the employees satisfaction and self-actualization
- To develop and maintain the quality of work life
- To communicate HR policies to all employees.
- To help maintain ethical polices and behavior
Strategic HR Management
As a part of maintaining organizational competitiveness, strategic planning for HR effectiveness can be increased through the use of HR metrics and HR technology. Human resource planning (HRP) function determine the number and type of employees needed to accomplish organizational goals. HRP includes recruitment, selection and placement, Training and development, motivation and performance appraisal, feedback. Leadership compensation, labour relations and employee security. This function analyzes and determines personnel needs in order to create effective innovation teams.
This is the most challenging task for any HR manager. A lot of attention and resources are required to draw, employ and hold the prospective employees. A lot of elements go into this function of recruitment, like developing a job description, publishing the job posting, sourcing the prospective candidates, interviewing, salary negotiations and making the job offer
“Selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidates specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements or not”. “Selection is an exercise which involves a series of steps by which candidates are screened and the most suitable one is chosen to fill the vacancy in an organization”
“Placement is the process of assigning a specific job to each one of the selected candidates”. “Placement is the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his/her assignment to that job. It is a matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can do with the job demands. It is a matching of what he imposes in strain, working conditions), and what he offers in the form of payroll, companionship with others, promotional possibilities, etc..”
Training and Development: On the job training is the responsibility of the HR department. Fresher training may also be provided by some companies for both new hires and existing employees. This Fresher training is mainly done to make the employees up to date in their respective areas as required by the company. This function makes the employees understand the process and makes it easy for them to get on their jobs with much ease. During the process of the training and development, the results are monitored and measured to find out if the employees require any new skills in addition to what he/she has.
Performance Appraisal: The employees of any organization will be evaluated by the HR department as per the performance. This function of Human Resource Management is to help the organization in finding out if the employee they have hired is moving towards the goals and objectives of the organization. On the other hand, it also helps the company to evaluate whether the employees needs improvement in other areas. It also helps the HR team in drawing certain development plans for those employees who have not met the minimal requirements of the job.
To protect the organization this function plays a crucial role. The HR department of every organization should be aware of all the laws and policies that relate to employment, working conditions, working hours, overtime, minimum wage, tax allowances etc. Compliance with such laws is very much required for the existence of an organization.
Performance feedback is the on-going process between employee and manager where information is exchanged concerning the performance expected and the performance exhibited
Leadership compensation is the monetary and non-monetary benefits which are given to the senior management & executives of a company. This includes salaries, perks, incentives, insurances etc. Thus, organizations look take care of these employees by giving them special compensation and benefits. Their salaries & compensation is based not only on their experience but also on their profile, qualification etc.
This maybe the most complicated set of relations that any HR Manager has to deal with. Efficient maintenance of labor relations helps the HR Managers in developing a harmonious environment within the organization which, in turn, helps the organization in effectively achieving its goals and objectives. Well-managed labor relations provide a competitive advantage to the organization by negating the hassles arising out of labor or union related issues and conflicts.
With increasing competitiveness and mounting pressure of accomplishing the business’s strategic goals, it has become essential for an organization to acquire an effective and dependable labor relations support. For the same, the organization may opt for the services of an HR Consulting Firm.
The employees in the organization expected to continue their job with certainty without unexpected sudden
The employees in the organization expected to continue their job with certainty without unexpected sudden
The employees in the organization expected to continue their job with certainty without unexpected sudden job loss. Employee job security is one of the important components which bring employees’ attachment with the organization. Stability of job in the workplace enhances employees’ level of engagement with their work
MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITIES IN LABOUR FORCE
Workforce diversity is simply how diverse is the workforce. Are there several people with a mix of cultures, age, background, race, and etc? If there are many people that have differences. According to Moorhead and Griffin “Workforce diversity is basically concerned with the similarities and differences in such characteristics as age, gender, ethnic, heritage, physical abilities and disabilities, race and sexual orientation among the employees of the organization” As we enter the 21st century, workforce diversity has become an essential business concern. In the so-called information age, the greatest assets of most companies are now on two feet (or a set of wheels). Undeniably, there is a talent war raging. No company can afford to unnecessarily restrict its ability to attract and retain the very best employees available. Generally speaking, the term “Workforce Diversity” refers to policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are considered to be, in some way, different from those in the prevailing constituency.
COMMUNICATION, INFORM TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNET ISSUES IN HRM
Every organization use information system and computer technology to discuss everything everywhere. IT and internet are very impressive in organizational learning, effective communication with the employees, for the impressive organizational learning process and of the availability of information anytime and anywhere as manager required this to use their skills and abilities in organization and for timely decrease their weakness and other aspects. Information technology has changed the organization including human resources following function
Role of Information Technology in Recruiting
Information Technology (IT) in HR function has created a new way of HR processes applications. This IT application in HR processes includes virtual recruitment, E-learning, and self-services HR (Gardner, Lepak, and Bartol, 2003). Virtual recruitment is web based recruitment and it includes- virtual interview, online psychological test, resume searching and online job declaration that have changed the recruitment process and it is the fastest recruitment process. These applications also removed the potential obstacles to reach to the pool of candidate (Hendrickson, 2003). Before the internet, HR recruiters had to rely on print publications like as-newspaper; magazine but Information technology has made recruitment process more effective and efficient. (Selvan V, 2015).
Role of Information Technology in Training
HR manager trains new staff in the organization in a more efficient manner possibly through the information technology. Trainers work directly with new staff through the information technology and training programs.
Role of Information Technology in Performance Management
HR manager uses information technology to get employee performance and also assess employee feedback to be used for the benefit of the organization. Various hardware and software application available to make it possible for HR manager to examine the employee performance and established the performance standard. HR manager compares the actual performance of the employee to standard performance and remove the differences and also provide additional training to their employee.
Role of Information Technology in Human Resources Development
Information technology is also necessary for human resources development in the society and organization and it determines development principle of human resources according to the requirement of employees and society. Information technology helps in Human Resources Development by developing human capabilities and quality on a continuous basis. In information technology process, information is always produced, distributed, processed and managed, so information technology will be the solution of problems when the training of employees and human capabilities are combined and thus develop and enhance productivity
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANNING AND STRATEGY
HRP is the process by which management determines how the organization should move from its current man power position to desired manpower position. Through planning, management strives to have the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and individual receiving maximum long run benefits HRP is a Four-Phased Process.
- The first phase involves the gathering and analysis of data through manpower inventories and forecasts,
- The second phase consists of establishing manpower objectives and policies and gaining top management approval of these.
- The third phase involves designing and implementing plans and promotions to enable the organization to achieve its manpower objectives.
- The fourth phase is concerned with control and evaluation of manpower plans to facilitate progress in order to benefit both the organization and the individual. The long run view means that gains may be sacrificed in the short run for the future grounds. The planning process enables the organization to identify what its manpower needs is and what potential manpower problems required current action. This leads to more effective and efficient performance.
Hence, HR Strategy (Human Resource Strategy) is a designation for a long-term plan created to achieve objectives in the field of human resource and human capital management and development in the organization. Human Resource strategy is one of the outputs of strategic management in the field ofhuman resources management
Role Of Planning In Predicting The Future And Mobilizing Organizational Resources To Meet Future Contingencies
Human Resource Planning prepares people for future challenges. The stars‘ are picked up, trained, assessed and assisted continuously so that when the time comes such trained employees can quickly take the responsibilities and position of their boss or seniors as and when situation arrives.
HRP is the subsystem in the total organizational planning. Organizational planning includes managerial activities that set the company‘s objective for the future and determines the appropriate means for achieving those objectives. The importance of HR is elaborated on the basis of the key roles that it is playing in the organization.
- Future Personnel Needs: Human resource planning is significant because it helps to determine the future personnel needs of the organization. If an organization is facing the problem of either surplus or deficiency in staff strength, then it is the result of the absence of effecting HR planning. All public sector enterprises find themselves overstaffed now as they never had any planning for personnel requirement and went of recruitment spree till late 1980‘s. The problem of excess staff has become such a prominent problem that many private sector units are resorting to VRS ‗voluntary retirement scheme‘. The excess of labor problem would have been there if the organization had good HRP system. Effective HRP system will also enable the organization to have good succession planning.
- Part of Strategic Planning: HRP has become an integral part of strategic planning of strategic
planning. HRP provides inputs in strategy formulation process in terms of deciding whether the organization has got the right kind of human resources to carry out the given strategy. HRP is also necessary during the implementation stage in the form of deciding to make resource allocation decisions related to organization structure, process and human resources. In some organizations HRP play as significant role as strategic planning and HR issues are perceived as inherent in business management.
- Creating Highly Talented Personnel: Even though India has a great pool of educated unemployed, it is the discretion of HR manager that will enable the company to recruit the right person with right skills to the organization. Even the existing staff hope the job so frequently that organization face frequent shortage of manpower. Manpower planning in the form of skill development is required to help the organization in dealing with this problem of skilled manpower shortage
- International Strategies: An international expansion strategy of an organization is facilitated to a great extent by HR planning. The HR department‘s ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and reassignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge that is being faced by international business. With the growing trend towards global operation, the need for HRP will as well will be the need to integrate HRP more closely with the organizations strategic plans. Without effective HRP and subsequent attention to employee recruitment, selection, placement, development, and career planning, the growing competition for foreign executives may lead to expensive and strategically descriptive turnover among key decision makers.
- Foundation for Personnel Functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions, such as recruitment, selection, training and development, personnel movement like transfers, promotions and layoffs.
- Increasing Investments in Human Resources: Organizations are making increasing investments in human resource development compelling the increased need for HRP. Organizations are realizing that human assets can increase in value more than the physical assets. An employee who gradually develops his/ her skills and abilities become a valuable asset for the organization. Organizations can make investments in its personnel either through direct training or job assignment and the rupee value of such a trained, flexible, motivated productive workforce is difficult to determine. Top officials have started acknowledging that quality of work force is responsible for both short term and long term performance of the organization.
- Resistance to Change: Employees are always reluctant whenever they hear about change and even about job rotation. Organizations cannot shift one employee from one department to another without any specific planning. Even for carrying out job rotation (shifting one employee from one department to another) there is a need to plan well ahead and match the skills required and existing skills of the employees.
- Uniting the Viewpoint of Line and Staff Managers: HRP helps to unite the viewpoints of line and staff managers. Though HRP is initiated and executed by the corporate staff, it requires the input and cooperation of all managers within an organization. Each department manager knows about the issues faced by his department more than anyone else. So communication between HR staff and line managers is essential for the success of HR Planning and development.
- Succession Planning: Human Resource Planning prepares people for future challenges. The
‗stars‘ are picked up, trained, assessed and assisted continuously so that when the time comes
Steps of SWOT Analysis:
- Analyze the external environment
- Analyze the industry and competition
- Identify the external opportunities and threats
- Analyze the internal environment and identify the internal strengths and weaknesses
- Assess the attractiveness of the organization’s situations and draw conclusions regarding the need for strategic action.
1st External Environmental Analysis:
External environment analysis is the first step of the steps of SWOT analysis. From this, we have to obey the following things. Such as:-
- Identify the key political, economic, social-cultural, demographic, natural/ecological and technological forces that are most likely to affect the organization.
- Monitor information on the environmental forces.
- Select the methods to be used in forecasting these forces.
- Isolate the marketplace chances on the origin of the forecasts of these forces.
- Estimate the inclinations in these navies.
- Identifying the threats to the organization’s future profitability.
2nd Industry and Competitive Analysis:
The second is the industry and competitive analysis of the steps of SWOT analysis. There are included the following indicators. Such as:-
- Examine the landscape of struggle.
- Study the business construction.
- Identify and analyze individual competitors.
- Identify the key industry-related opportunities and threats.
3rd Identification of Opportunities and Threats:
The external analysis (one of the steps of SWOT analysis) will provide you with information for the identification of threats and opportunities in the external environment. It is the responsibility of the management to ensure that information derived from environmental scanning is summarized and analyzed to determine what characterize these threats and threats. One method of performing an opportunity and threat analysis is simply to categorize the environmental factors in terms of opportunity potential and threat potential. Then management should summarize the emerging implications for future organizational direction.
4th Internal Environmental Analysis and Identification Internal Strengths & Weaknesses:
The fourth phase of the steps of SWOT analysis is it. That name is internal environmental analysis and identification of internal strengths & weaknesses. But it is divided into two categories. Such as:-
- Internal Environmental Analysis
- Identification Internal Strengths and Weaknesses
1. Internal Environmental Analysis
The internal environmental analysis is the sup-step of the steps of SWOT analysis. We have to read these important indicators. Such as:-
- Recognize the areas for scrutiny (for instance product position, financial position, etc.)
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses for their strategy-making implications.
- Detecting association’s inner resource and strengths abilities.
- Examine each of the nominated zones.
- Identifying the organization’s internal weaknesses and resources deficiencies.
2. Identification Internal Strengths and Weaknesses
It is the second sub-step of the steps of SWOT analysis. The information derived from the internal analysis would provide you the basis for identification of strengths and weaknesses of your organization. While identifying the strengths and weaknesses, you need to bear in mind that the skills and capabilities which are likely to serve as enablers for strategy formulation and implementation are to be listed as strengths. Those which are not enablers should be listed as the weakness. You use the example-based format, as shown in the following table. For identification and listing of strengths and weaknesses.
5th Concluding SWOT Analysis and Drawing Conclusion:
Concluding SWOT Analysis and Drawing Conclusion is the final one of the steps of SWOT analysis. Under it has following things. Such as:-
- Assess the attractiveness of an organization’s situation on the basis of identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
- Draw conclusion regarding the need for strategic action.
A format for comprehensive SWOT analysis (in the steps of SWOT analysis) with examples from the bank is given the following table for your better understanding of how to write down statements for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Type of strategy
There are many avenues a company can go down when developing a business. A corporate-level strategy is when a business makes a decision that affects the whole company. A corporate-level strategy affects a company’s finances, management, human resources, and where the products are sold. The purpose of a corporate-level strategy is to maximize its profitability and maintain its financial success in the future. A corporate-level strategy is utilized to help increase competitive advantage over its competitors and to continue to offer a unique product or service to consumers.
An organization’s core competencies should be focused on satisfying customer needs or preferences in order to achieve above average returns. This is done through Business-level strategies. Business level strategies detail actions taken to provide value to customers and gain a competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in specific, individual product or service markets. Business-level strategy is concerned with a firm’s position in an industry, relative to competitors and to the five forces of competition.
Functional level strategies.
Functional level strategies are the actions and goals assigned to various departments that support your business level strategy and corporate level strategy. These strategies specify the outcomes you want to see achieved from the daily operations of specific departments (or functions) of your business.