AN APPRAISAL OF STUDENTS OPINION ON THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES ON CULTURAL PRESERVATION IN KOGI STATE NIGERIA
This study set to evaluates” An appraisal of students opinion on the impact of social studies on cultural preservation in Kogi state Nigeria”. The respondents for the study are upper basic 7-9 students of the Local Government Areas. The population of the study was Four Thousand, Five Hundred and Eighty two (4582). ANOVA and t-test instruments were used in the analysis of data at an alpha level of 0.05 level of tolerance. The instrument used in this research work is structured questionnaire with Survey research design and the sample size and Procedure and Size was Four Hundred and Ninety (490). The study reveals that both male and female students are of the strong believe that Social Studies Education has imparted valuable cultures in students in the urban areas than students in the rural areas. It was also observed that, both urban and rural areas are of the same belief that there is no significant difference between effects of Social Studies education on cultural preservation. That, Social Studies students learn more about their culture from basic 7-9, and finally, that the effects among the junior classes the students exhibit in their early life. The null hypotheses were accepted and it was therefore recommended that, Government should review the Social Studies curriculum regularly to take care of the dynamic cultural background of the people, parents should augment teacher’s effort by their children some of the notable cultures in their society and it was equally suggested that the further study be carried on their dear for cultural preservation in Yagba West and East Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state.
1.1. Background to the Study
The concept of culture in Social Studies context is used in various ways with different meaning”. These usages are either colloquial or scientific. In colloquial terms, the cultured person is taught to be one who is well educated well mannered and reserved in his behavior” (Livingstone, 2007). In scientific usage, culture is often defined in blanket term as the total way of life of the people (Oyeronke, 2006). More especially, Otite & Ogionwo (1979) viewed that culture is the complex of man‟s acquisition of knowledge, morals, belief, art, custom, technology, etc. which are shared and transmitted from generation to generation”. Brown (1963) had earlier defined culture as” the sum total and the organization or arrangement of all the group ways of thinking, feelings and acting. According to her, it includes the physical manifestations of the group as exhibited in the object they make i.e. clothing, shelter, tools, weapons, implements, utensils, etc.” For Kata, (1975), culture means, “the totality of knowledge and behavior, ideas and objects that constitute the common heritage of a society.
Livingstone (2000) proffered that a people are known by their culture. For instance, you will recognize an Igbo woman at a glance because of her peculiar culture. In Nigeria, some Social Studies textbooks claim that, many ethnic groups in Nigeria are yet to be identified. One can easily distinguish each of the different ethnic origins by their own appearances as an aspect of culture. People‟s culture is dedicated by what people do in response to what is happening around such a people. For instance, some culture use Rat as delicacy while others see this same rats as poison for human consumption. In the same way, our physical environment decides whether we should move about in boat, donkey, or horses. Those who live in the riverside areas move about
in boat while those live in semi-desert regions ride horses, camels, donkeys and the likes. By this application therefore, boat has become part of the culture in the riverside part of Nigeria. While horses, donkeys, camel has become part of the culture of the far northern part of the nation.
As Yunisa (2000) Posited that, traditional African society had it form of indigenous Education and Curriculum before the advent of the first Missionaries in 1942.There was something to be taught and learnt, in spite of the fact that, most were not in written form or formal. Its objectives were to transmit cultural heritage there by equipping the child with the ability to survive in the society. This according to Yunisa was aspect of cultural indigenous education, which is relevant to Social Studies education in nature because it studied man‟s cultural environment which man was in turn affected.
The concepts of Social Studies either in the traditional period or in its period of formal inception in Nigerian School curriculum have played greater impact on Nigerian culture. Since man‟s environment influences his culture. Social Studies Education has its direct linkages with the society since group of people makes the society and culture is the foundation on which every society is built and culture affects every spheres of the society.Social Studies education has greater effects in the area of cultural preservation among Junior Secondary School Students in Kogi State and the nation at large. The major ethnic groups in Kogi State include; the Igala‟s in the East, the Okuns in the West and the Ebiras in the North Central.
We shall discuss in to detail the cultural practice in Yagba West and East Yagba Local Government Areas in the Western aspect of Kogi State and the impact Social Studies Education has made on it preservation among the Junior Secondary Schools in Kogi state
1.2. Statement of the Problem
It is obvious to note that Nigerian cultures have been relegated to the ground and mixed up with cultures of the western countries due to the advent of modern technologies, modernization, internet facilities, films, corrupt magazines, etc .which turn the whole world to a „‟ room and parlor.‟‟ Some cultures that are much useful for national heritage and development are neither utilized nor considered relevance.
Western countries have gone in no small measure in destroying the Nigerian culture.An aspect of development which education is supposed to promote is the socio-cultural set up of any society. A critical look at the Nigerian education system shows that, there is inconsistency between education and social development. Yunisa argued that, western education has made people to neglect their culture. The modes of dressing and feeding have been changed to western types. The neglect of our traditional culture which is a bye product of western education has become an obstacle to the national development, because, development must originate from within the society. It is obvious that education in any given country should reflect the culture of that country in question. We should imagine a situation where by
Children have no respect for their elders and the authority e.g. shaking their elder while standing, calling them by name, embezzlement of Government funds etc.
Nigerians abandon their own cultural dressings and hair styles for foreign types which does not reflects the true “ Omoluabi” of Nigeria e g. armless dressing, short or mini skirt, fixing of artificial air and nails etc. Accessibility to internet facility, watching of foreign movies, reading of foreign magazines have corrupt the Nigerian cultures through the way our
children have been exposed, there by watching and learning nudity, crimes, blue films, war films etc.
Abandon their cultural food for junks type that are foreign in nature which include burger, ice cream, meat pie etc. which sometimes has adverse effects on our health.
People like to behave like foreigners relegating our culture to the ground there by placing foreign culture over theirs.
It was also observed that, the influence of the Western world is destroying the cultural heritage of our country. (Nigeria). Current trend shows that, there has been a massive slide in standards, especially in the area of education (which include both formal and informal), agriculture and cultural values. Benefit of technological development has a lot of draw back on our ethnicity, as the culture shocks and influences of the Western World are destroying our cultural heritage. Our youth are ashamed of speaking their dialect in the public or eating our food, which is a challenge that everybody must take up, stressing that, there must be need to build capacity for the youth to appreciate the cultural values and the legacies of the founding father.
It is against this background that Social Studies education is to be assessed of its impacts on how our culture will not be swept away by the effects of modernization and westernization effects but rather preserved for the upliftment and glorification of Nigerian economy and how these cultures can be further developed to meet the nation‟s challenges of dynamism. Since there is no society that is static but subjected to changes. Cultures in kogi state are valuable and attract growth if well utilized. With regard to this, this research is attempting find out how this culture will be well preserved and developed for future national development
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives are to guide the researcher in the course of this study toward achievable conclusions.
The objectives of this research are as follows:
- To examine the opinion of Upper Basic 7-9 students between the Urban and Rural areas on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation with respect to school location in Kogi State.
- To examine the opinion of males and females junior secondary school students on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi state.
- To examine the opinion of junior secondary school students among Upper Basic 7, 8 and 9 on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi State.
1.4. Research Questions
Some research questions were drawn to compare two variables in this research work in order to reach a valid inference.
- What are the opinions of Upper Basic 7-9 students of the urban and rural areas on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation with respect to school location in Kogi State?
2 Do male and female junior secondary school students differ in opinion on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi state?
3 In what way are junior secondary students in upper Basic 7, 8 and 9 differing in their opinion on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi State?
The following null hypotheses were formulated to answer the questions raised
HO1: There is no significant difference in the opinion of upper Basic 7-9 students in the Urban and Rural areas on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi State
HO2: There is no significant difference between the opinion of male and female junior secondary school students on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi state
HO3: There is no significant difference among the opinion of junior secondary school students Upper Basic 7, 8 and 9 on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi State
1.6. Significance of the Study
The importance of culture in any society cannot be over emphasized because no society exists without culture and cultural transmission from one generation to another (Ughamadu 2002). It is important to note that, the essence of which this research is carried out is to analyses the opinion of junior secondary school students on the impact of Social Studies education on cultural preservation in Kogi state. Though various researchers have carried out some relevant works of this like with diverse purposes. But this research work is carried out with greatest significance to the National Policy