Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Abbreviations xiii
Operational Definition of Terms xiv
Background to the Study 1  
Statement of the Problem 5  
Objectives of the Study 7  
Research Questions 7  
Research Hypotheses 8  
Basic Assumptions 9  
Significance of the Study 10  
Scope of the Study 12  
Introduction 13  
Conceptual Framework 14  
Classroom Management 15  
Time Management 17  
Discipline 18  
Reward 20  
2.2.5 Classroom Arrangement 21
2.2.6 Punishment 23
2.2.7 Non-verbal Communication 26
2.2.8 Group Participation 27
2.2.9 Management Techniques 30
2.3 Theoretical Framework 32
2.4 Techniques of Classroom Management 36
2.4.1 Techniques of Time Management 38
2.4.2 Techniques of Discipline 43
2.4.3 Techniques of Reward 44
2.4.4 Techniques of Classroom Arrangement 48
2.4.5 Techniques of Punishment 53
2.4.6 Techniques of Non-verbal Communication 63
2.4.7 Techniques of Group Participation 65
2.5 Teachers Role in Classroom Management 71
2.5.1 Knowledge and Behaviour of Teachers in Classroom Management 74
2.5.2 Techniques Teachers Need to Apply in Classroom Management 77
2.6 Empirical Studies 79
2.7 Summary 83
3.1 Introduction 84
3.2 Research Design 84
3.3 Population of the Study 84
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 85
3.5 Instrumentation 86
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 86
3.5.2 Pilot Test 87
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 87
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 87
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 88
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 Analysis of Bio-data Variables 89
4.3 Answers to Research Questions 92
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 106
4.5 Summary of Hypotheses Testing 115
4.6 Summary of Major Findings 115
4.7 Discussions of Findings 116
5.1 Summary 120
5.2 Conclusion 122
5.3 Recommendations 123
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 124
  References 125
  Appendix 134





1.1         Background to the Study

Classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual likeness, shared goals and connectedness. Management on the other hand, can be seen as the process of designing and maintaining any setting in which people work in groups for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. The idea of any setting equally indicates that management is applicable to all establishments which do not exonerate educational setting.


Management involves the act of running or controlling or skill of dealing with people or situations in any way (Adeyemo, 2012). Also, management is defined as a method where a group of people at the highest level of organization plan, organize, communicate, coordinate, control and direct the actions and activities of people who work for the organization toward the achievement of organizational objectives (Loomiz, 1989 in Adeyemo, 2012). Some people believe that education and management are incompatible; management is seen as process that happens in industry but not in education. The management role of a teacher therefore is not the same as that of an accountant or of a bank manager, but the management role is certainly an institution that has specific objectives and a school is not an exception. In order to achieve its aims, a school has to have objectives, and to achieve these objectives, the various people with responsibilities in the school especially in a classroom have to plan, organize and lead.

Classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behaviour. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experienced problems in this area cause some to leave teaching. Classroom management is a complex set of articulate behaviour which the teacher uses to establish and maintain conditions to enable learners achieve instructional objectives efficiently. Brown (1995) looked at classroom management as a process involving the organization of certain academic tasks which are essential for effective teaching and learning in a specific set up. Classroom management first became a popular topic in education during the 1970 and 1980 (Tavares, 1996 & Butchart, 1995). The focus in these early years was primarily on making the classroom safe and establishing behaviour management, used to control and shape students behaviour to conform to school rules by the classroom teacher. Classroom management using an authoritarian or punitive approach could repress disorderly behaviour, but it might not foster student‘s growth or allow the acquisition of more sophisticated modes of learning, such as critical thinking and reflection (Jones, 1995).


In the 1990s classroom management developed beyond a set of educational techniques to become a complex process in which an environment is constructed in an on-going reciprocal manner. This process included dialogue between teachers and students, reflection on past and present experiences, and looking at how one‘s behaviour affected others in the environment (Schneider, 1996). Research from Balmer, Brophy and Good in Adeyemo (2012) shows that the time teacher has to correct misbehaviour caused by poor classroom management skills result in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From the students‘ perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of behaviour and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning

environment. Apparently, classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, reinforcement, reward, discipline and respect (Naong, 2007). There are instances of some situations in the classroom that has necessitated the application of adequate management techniques by the teacher, these among others include: Students undermining the teacher‘s authority; students leaving class too frequently, sometimes without permission; sitting and backing the teacher during lesson; reading other materials or doing other things like discussion or noise making during lesson; eating or chewing gum while the class is going on; and students sleeping in the class during the lesson. All these should be considered rude and should not be tolerated. Other issues faced in the classes are: refusal to participate or speak during lesson, students sometimes become naughty and refuse to participate in classroom activities, fighting in the class, telling lies, stealing, copying other students‘ work during test or examinations, lack of toilet training, for instance and the likes. All these types of behaviour are management problems which need adequate classroom management techniques to tackle them. In countries like the U.S. and Malaysia, there are media publications, where teachers have been charged with assault on learners; teachers have used sticks to hit the children (Naong, 2007).


A significant body of research also attests to the fact that classroom organization and behaviour management competencies significantly influence the persistence of new teachers in teaching career (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). New teachers typically express concerns about lacking effective means to handle the disruptive behaviour of students (Browers & Tomic, 2000). The ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behaviour of their students is critical of achieving positive educational outcomes. As Zeidner (1990) in Adeyemo (2012) stated that adequate classroom discipline is generally regarded to be one of the most essential aspects of education as well as an absolute prerequisite to achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding students‘ psychological,

social and physical well-being. The objectives of classroom are for students to gain social and academic success in a structured environment that caters for tolerance, exemplary behaviour and learning.


Effective classroom management means implementing techniques that create a safe, fair and rule based learning environment for students to flourish in. Emmor and Evertson in Osakwe (2013) stated that effective classroom management consists of teacher behaviour that produces high level of students‘ involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts of student‘s behaviour that interferes with the teacher‘s or other students‘ work, and efficient use of instructional time. Classroom management techniques are a critical part of teacher’s success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students. The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place. Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply techniques that will allow and also help student to learn because without classroom management, teaching and learning process cannot be successful and effective. In view of this, Inusa (2004) opined that, a person who cannot maintain order and discipline among children is not fit to be a teacher.



In Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State, the issue of classroom management has some peculiar problems. One major issue is lack of interest in education at large. It has been discovered that schools have become less populated and even under populated in some cases because of lack of interest. The students that are even available in schools are hardly interested in education, but might be there by their parent’s desire, in essence, some of the learners display negative behaviour during lessons and when disciplinary action are taken against them it drives them out of school completely. How then do we manage our classroom adequately and keep such children in school. This study then


was carried out to find appropriate techniques for classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria.


1.2     Statement of the Problem


The purpose of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. As student often exhibits some deviant behaviour in the classroom, which include; noise making, chewing gum, passing notes, using cell phones in class, cheating during examinations or test, copying or passing a different note during lesson, jesting, sleeping during lessons, stealing, eating during lessons, fighting, rudeness to teachers, breaking school rules, distracting others and the likes. All these and even more could constitute management problems that require effective management techniques to handle them so as to achieve educational objectives (Osakwe, 2014). Likewise, communication is a very important tool to help foster good classroom atmosphere and relations (Adeyemo, 2012). Students relate very well and openly with teachers they have formed a connection with through good communication. Hence, the teacher should not be seen as a dictator, because adolescents/teenagers easily rebel against such. A teacher should be someone reliable, trustworthy, approachable, open and respected. But these attributes are lacking in our teachers, which makes classroom management more difficult in Nigerian schools (Adeyemo, 2012). Good interpersonal relationship, will lead to easier classroom management and help achieve educational objectives at the long run.


Some parents in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State show negative attention to their children’s education and this makes it difficult for teachers to do their work effectively. This is because some classroom management techniques are taken, some parents do not take it in good faith. Parents are rather concerned with their children learning a trade, farming or even sending them to bigger cities to get jobs. Another problem that informs this study is the issue of classroom arrangement. This has made classroom management very

difficult in Oyun. Furthermore, in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State, many teachers find it difficult to effectively manage students, because teenagers are more difficult to manage. Thus to effectively manage classroom with teenagers, proper techniques are to be tactically used with necessary variety (Kimberly, 2001).


Another problem in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State is bad infrastructure in schools. One of the conditions for effective classroom management in teaching and learning is a conducive environment, with good infrastructure. Hence, there are some schools in the zone without furniture, dilapidated buildings or falling ceiling. Managing learners under such conditions becomes difficult or very impossible. Educators in Oyun Local Government Area will therefore have to discover and apply techniques that are suitable with such conditions. In this Local Government, environmental conditions has also affected the teaching and learning process and invariably affecting classroom management. A child that is not sitting comfortably cannot listen attentively.


Even though, punishment and other effective classroom management techniques are allowed generally in Kwara State, there is need to discover alternative techniques to use that could help the teachers in classroom management and match with the attainment of educational objectives. Therefore, this study surveyed the application of Classroom Management Techniques in Secondary Schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria with the hope to discover alternative techniques to use for effective classroom management.

1.3     Objectives of the Study


This study was carried out with the objectives to:


  1. examine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of time management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;


  1. investigate the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of reward in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;


  1. explore the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of punishment in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;


  1. determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of discipline in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;


  1. find out the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on group participation in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;


  1. determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of classroom arranagement in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State; and


  1. assess the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on application use of non-verbal communication in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.


1.4         Research Questions




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