BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) IN AGEING MEN ATTENDING CLINIC AT UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL (UNTH), ITUKU-OZALLA, ENUGU STATE OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

 

This study was aimed at investigating biochemical changes associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia in ageing men attending clinic at the university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria. The assessment included 50 men with BPH attending clinic in addition to 50 healthy men (control). All samples were divided into 5 groups and with varying age ranges (Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: BPH patients ≤ 60 years, on treatment, Group 3: BPH patients ≤ 60 years, not on treatment, Group 4: BPH patients ≥ 60 years, taking treatment, Group 5: BPH patients ≥ 60 years, not on treatment).PSA levels of BPH positive subjects under treatment increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the control. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) high level of calcium in subjects who were ≤60 years of age that are on treatment compared with group 1 (control). Also, the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) recorded a high significance (p < 0.05) in comparison to the normal control. In the same study, zinc level decreased non-significantly (p > 0.05) in the groups under investigation and the level of sodium in the blood of positive treated and untreated BPH patients was non-significantly (p > 0.05) high when compared to the healthy subjects. Iron level showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) elevation in subjects ≤ 60 years of age who were on treatment and a significantly level (p < 0.05) in the other groups under investigation. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the level of potassium ion concentration of BPH patients of group 2 and 5 as was also observed in the levels of magnesium group 2 and 4; though, the level of magnesium dropped significantly in BPH untreated group (group 3 and 5). The result of this study also showed a non-significantly (p > 0.05) higher level of selenium in BPH positive patients of all the groups under investigation compared with group 1 (normal control) while creatinine levels showed a significant (p< 0.05) elevation in all the groups being investigated when compared with group 1.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

List of figures

List of Abbreviations

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Epidemiology

1.2       Prostate Anatomy

1.2.1    Functions of the prostate

1.2.2    Causes of prostate enlargement

1.2.3    Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate

1.3       Complications of prostate enlargement

1.3.1    Effect of enlarged prostate on the bladder

1.3.2    Effect of enlarged prostate on sexual performance

1.4       Symptoms prostate enlargement

1.5       Diagnoses of BPH

1.5.1    Urinalysis

1.5.2    A urine culture

1.5.3    A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test

1.5.4    Uroflorometry

1.5.5    Pressure-flow urodynamic studies

1.5.6    Ultrasonography

1.5.7    Filling cystometry

1.5.8    Cystoscopy

1.6       Chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH

1.6.1    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor blockers

1.6.2    5-alpha-reductase inhibitors

1.6.3    Antimuscarinics

1.6.4    Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors

1.7       Surgical treatment of BPH

1.7.1    Dietary and lifestyle consideration

1.7.1.1 Eating vegetables

1.7.1.2 Weight loss

1.7.1.3 Exercise

1.7.2    Targeted nutritional interventions

1.7.3    Pygeum africanum

1.8       Biochemical markers associated with BPH

1.9       Biomarkers of prostate enlargement

1.9.1    Prostate specific antigen

1.9.2    Metallic prostatic antioxidants (Zinc and selenium)

1.9.3    Renal function test (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen)

1.9.4    Minerals (Potassium, Iron, Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium)

1.10     Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.10.1  Specific Objectives of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1       Materials

2.1.1    Sample collection

2.1.2    Chemicals and reagents

2.1.3    Equipment

2.2       Methods

2.2.1    Sample collection

2.2.2    Experimental design

2.2.3    Determination of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Level

2.2.4    Determination of calcium concentration

2.2.5    Determination of magnesium concentration

2.2.6    Determination of sodium concentration

2.2.7    Determination of potassium concentration

2.2.8    Determination of Iron concentration

2.2.9    Determination of selenium concentration

2.2.10  Determination of creatinine concentration

2.2.11  Determination of Blood Urea Nitrogen

2.2.12  Determination of zinc concentration

2.3       Statistical analysis

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS

3.1       Prostate  specific  antigen  (PSA)  level  of  Normal  and  Benign  Prostatic  Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.2       Calcium concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.3       Blood urea nitrogen of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.4       Zinc concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.5       Sodium concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.6       Iron concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.7       Potassium concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.8       Magnesium concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.9       Selenium concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

3.10     Creatinine concentration of Normal and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia subjects attending clinic

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION

4.1       Discussion

4.2       Conclusion

4.3       Suggestions for further studies

References

Appendices

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