CAD ASTRAL MAPPING USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
Banjiram is one of the communities resettled in the year 1980 to make room for the construction of Kiri dam to supply the Savannah Sugar Company with water for Irrigation. As part of the resettlement program, the Federal Government then, cleared and surveyed an alternative location (now New Banjiram). A cadastral survey was carried out and plots were physically delineated on the ground with beacons at the corners of each plot. Land right were orally transmitted and the evidence of such land rights has been based on the knowledge of community elders and village chiefs. With increasing population and consequent competition for land, there has been prevailing tenure insecurity with its associated conflicts and litigations over land ownership. One of the most important documents: paper-based cadastral layout of the area containing delineated parcels has been lying the cabinet of the Adamawa state Ministry of Lands and Survey in a decaying state. This research is aimed at carrying out a cadastral mapping of Banjirm using Remote Sensing and GIS with a view to developing digital cadastral Information System which has the ability to integrate the map and the record of ownership and use. To achieve this, the cadastral layout of the study area was scanned and georeferenced in ArcGIS 10.1. Parcels were then digitally delineated (digitized) and given unique identification numbers. To obtain the textual component of the cadastre (land ownership and use information), a fieldwork was carried out to determine the existing land rights through a participatory process of adjudication. The adjudication involved visits to each parcel by a team comprising the researcher, a representative of the traditional heads and member of the Land owners union. To ease the process, a remotely-sensed imagery (Google Earth image) upon which the digitized parcels with unique numbers was overlaid was presented to land owners and witnesses (adjoining land owners) to visually identify their parcels and present their claims. A questionnaire (adjudication form) was used to record information on land owners and their parcels. A digital camera was also used to capture the passport photograph of each land owner. After the fieldwork, a cadastral database (containing the digital record of land owners and their parcels) was then designed and built using the information gathered. Analysis and testing of the efficiency of the database was then performed and a variety of results were generated. Major findings of this research include: (i) there were 1278 parcel with 1166 owner; (ii) about 1086 (84.977%) parcels were allocated while192 (15.023%) parcels were not allocated; (iii) there were 865 (67.762%) parcels that were developed while 413 (32.238%) parcels were not developed; (iv) out of the 1278 parcels: 758 (31.91%) were found to be used for residential purpose; 32 (20.016%) for institutional purpose; 11 (2.431) for commercial purpose; 158 (14.2%) for agricultural purpose and 301 (31.408%) for mixed uses.