COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF PROJECT AND LECTURE METHODS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS

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COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF PROJECT AND LECTURE METHODS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS

Title page                                                                                                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval Page                                                                                                                                    ii

Certificate Page                                                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                v

Table of contents                                                                                                                    vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                  ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTROUDUCTION

Background of the study                                                                                                        1

Statement of the problem                                                                                                       7

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                              8

Significance of the study                                                                                                        9

Scope of the study                                                                                                                  10

Research Questions                                                                                                                 11

Hypotheses                                                                                                                             12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                           13

Concept of Economics                                                                                                13

Lecture Method                                                                                                          14

Project Method                                                                                                           16

Academic Achievement                                                                                              20

Secondary School Student                                                                                         21


Theoretical Framework
                                                                                                       25Gender                                                                                                                                    22

Jean Piaget’s Constructivism Theory of Knowledge                                                  25

David Ausubel’s Theory of Meaningful Learning                                                      26

Empirical Studies                                                                                                                  28

Studies on Academic Achievement                                                                            28

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                              33

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                                                                                     36

Area of the Study                                                                                                                   36

Population of the study                                                                                                          37

Sample and sampling technique                                                                                              37

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                               38

Validation of the instrument                                                                                                   38

Reliability of the instrument                                                                                                   38

Method of Date Collection                                                                                                     39

Method of Date Analyses                                                                                                       41

CHAPTER FOUR

Presetnation of Results                                                                                                           42

Summary of Findings                                                                                                             51

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY

Discussion of Findings                                                                                                           52

Conclusion                                                                                                                              58

Recommendations                                                                                                                  59

Limitation of the Study                                                                                                          59

Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                                60

Summary of the Study                                                                                                            61

REFERENCES       

APPENDIX I: Reliability test using Kuder- Richardson formula 20                                   69

APPENDIX II: Lesson plan for experimental group                                                            73

APPENDIX III: Lesson plan for control group                                                                    85

APPENDIX IV: Cognitive test instrument                                                                           97

APPENDIX V: Private and public secondary schools in Nnewi North LGA                      107

This study focused on the effects of project and lecture methods on secondary school students’ academic achievement in Economics in Anambra State. The study adopted quasi experimental research design. The population consisted of 2243 male and 2528 female students from 49 secondary schools in Nnewi Education Zone. The sample size for this study was one hundred and forty-six (146) Economics students of S.S.I in Anambra State.  Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for the study. The instrument for data collection was a designed Multiple Choice Economics Achievement Test (MCEAT). Five research questions and five research hypotheses were stated to guide the study and were analysed using simple mean, standard deviation for research questions and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to analyse the research hypotheses. The finding of this study shows that: students taught with project teaching method achieved better than those taught with lecture teaching method; male students achieved better on the average (i.e. mean) compared to their female counterpart taught using lecture method of teaching; male students achieved better on the average (i.e. mean) compared to their female counterpart taught using project method of teaching; urban students achieved better on the average (i.e. mean) compared to their students from rural areas taught using lecture method of teaching; urban students achieved better on the average (i.e. mean) compared to their students from rural areas taught using project method of teaching. The research hypotheses tested revealed that: there is a significant difference in the achievement mean score of students taught Economics using lecture method (i.e. control group) and those taught using Project method (i.e. experimental group); there is no significant difference in the achievement means score of male and female students taught Economics using lecture method (i.e. control group); there is a significant difference in the achievement means score of male and female students taught Economics using project method (i.e. experimental group); the result shows there is no significant difference in the achievement means score of urban and rural students taught Economics using lecture method (i.e. control group); the result shows there is a significant difference in the achievement means score of urban and rural students taught Economics using project method (i.e. experimental group). Based on the findings, the recommendations were made that project method of teaching should be applied by teachers Economics since it makes students to be actively involved in the learning process. The government, ministry of education, and educational administrators should organise workshops, seminars, conferences etc. where knowledge about new innovative techniques could be exposed to the Economics teachers and how to use them in the classroom.

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

             Educators are beginning to show an increased awareness of the importance of the way students learn. Many of the standard methods of conveying knowledge have been shown to be relatively ineffective on the students’ ability to master and to retain important concepts (Sharma, 2012). Learning through some methods of teaching is passive rather than active. The conventional methods (lecture) do not tend to foster critical thinking, creative thinking and collaborative problem- solving (Blair, 2007).

Lecture method of teaching is the oldest method applied by teachers. This teaching method is a one way channel of communication or dissemination of information. Thus, Students’ involvement in this teaching method is just to listen and sometimes take down some notes if necessary during the lecture, combine the information and organize it. Lecture method of teaching has failed to provide teacher-student interactions and also encourages note cramming without understanding content. Moreover, students’ attention wane quickly during lectures and information tends to be forgotten quickly when students are passive. Lecture method also, emphasizes learning by listening which is disadvantageous for students who prefer other learning styles. No one can deny the fact that schools are becoming diverse in terms of students background, and as a result, teachers are being more challenged to find effective ways to meet with diverse needs of their students. Educators confront classrooms in which different students exhibit assorted academic and behavioural characteristics and they are increasingly looking for successful instructional and classroom management techniques (Carrier, 2005). It is now being recognized that there are better ways to learn than through the traditional methods (Wood& Gentile, 2003). One of these ways to learn is through project method.

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