DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INVERTER

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ABSTRACT

This project is titled the construction of a DC to AC inverter system. It is designed to meet up with the power demand in the offices and in homes in the absence of power supply from the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN. In order words the device/item serves as a s substitute for PHCN which almost monopolises the power supply to people. It is constructed in such a way that it will take up 12V DC from battery and inverts it to an output of 240V,  50Hz AC. It makes no noise during operation and no hazardous carbon monoxide is generated in the surrounding. This is a featured that makes it safe to use any were when compared to charging the battery (i.e. 12V source) when the power from the supply authority is on. This greatly reduces the cost of operation of the system.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

An inverter is an electrical/electronic device that accept DC input either from battery or solar cell power (12V or 24V AC).

This device is very convenient as they allow the use of standard “mains” appliances on a DC battery system.

Unfortunately, inverters are normally only suitable for occasional use on a remote solar or wind power system. Inverters are great for washing machines, power tools and vaccum cleaners which tend to have starter running times. However, due to the stand by and internal power losses in even the most efficient inverters, loads such as lighting and refrigerators are often run directly from DC. The larger the inverter, the larger the self consumption figure. Some power inverter are offer fitted with remote switches so that they can be turned off easily when not in use. It also makes sense to try and match the inverter to the load, of running a small load from a large inverter will be inefficient.

A 5000watts inverter system can produces pure 5000watts power of alternating current despite the losses in the system.

The inverter process can be achieved with the help of an electronics circuit called an oscillator. The oscillator helps to convert the incoming DC into AC before amplification and stepping up by the output transformer.

Inverter system can take an input voltage of 24volt DC which is normally achieved by connecting two 12volts battery in series or it can take an input voltage of 12volt DC, which is normally achieved by connecting two or more 12volt battery in parallel to increase its current. Both of the two input voltage depends on the design of the inverter system.

The configuration of this battery either series or parallel is known as power bank. The power capacity of the power bank can be increased by connecting two or more battery in parallel to achieve an increase in current, or connecting two 12 volts battery in series to achieve 24 volts DC. The more you connect or add load to the inverters system the less the standing by time (Charles, 2005).

1.1 Background of the Project

The background of the study is a broad description of the educational trend that is anticipated to impact to the student more technical knowledge in the field of their endeavor.

It is also a social concern and an unresolved issue which is needed to be resolved not only theoretically but on the practical phase of it.

Owing to the unavoidable power failure we do encounter in our country which has increased rapidly, an idea to design an alternative power supply which can deliver power to our electronic gadget without causing noise and environmental pollution comes up. The design and construction of this inverter shows that theoretical knowledge of the study is been translated into a practical functional system which can be very useful to the society in the events of frequent power supply failure (Edward, 2005).

1.2 Aim/Objectives of the Project

When the design and construction of this inverter system is achieved with a successful result, it serves as an alternative power supply which will produces AC power to our electrical and electronic gadget without causing noise and environmental pollution. This inverter system is expected to be used in emergency situation or in time when we are working with gadget that does not require power interruption because the stand by time of the inverter system is decreased with an increase in load.

Moreover, as the market is getting filled with an increased number of electronic gadget with low power consumption. This creates room for use to use inverter system for long period of time in time of power failure (Kelvin, 1997).

1.3 The Scope of the Project

The scope and the extent which led to the success and limitation of this system that depend on the circuit system design of this inverter system which at time makes room for modification.

This system as earlier stated; should not be operated on load or load above the rated power that is (5000W) and besides, the expected output voltage form this system is just 240V alternating voltage. Any appliance whose voltage or power rating is above it as load.

Carrying this system from place to place is an easy affair since the system is designed in such a way that it is very portable.

It has been stated earlier that the working duration of the system depends so much on the power bank. The more the current rating of the batteries created in Ampere per hour). The longer the inverter will deliver it output provided the power rating is not exceeded (Daniel, 2001).

1.4 Limitation of the Study

The cost of procurement of necessary materials needed for this research has been a barrier, because of the economic situation in the country. Time factor is also considered, since a project of this nature can be achieved without a maximum concentration, so this also been one of the limitations of this project work (Cory, 1999).

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