Content Page
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
List of Appendices xiii
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Hypotheses 5
1.6 Justification for the Study 5
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Operationalization of Variables 6
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 7
1.10 Organisation of Work 8
2.1The Civil Service 10
2.2 Indiscipline in the Civil Service 15
2.2.1 Selected Cases of Indiscipline that Violated Laid Down Procedure
in Nigeria 19
2.2.2 Misconduct in Civil Services in Nigeria 21
2.2.3 Reasons for Indiscipline in Civil Servant 22 Economic Factors 22 Factors 23 Social- political Factors 24
Content Page Management Factor 24 Lack of Motivation 25
2.3 DisciplinaryProcedure in the Civil Service 26
2.3.1 Traditional Approach: Progressive Approach 26 Progressive Disciplinary Procedure 30
2.3.2 Modern Approach: Corrective Approach 34
2.3.3 New Approach (Non-Punitive Discipline Method) 36
2.3.4 Categories of Disciplinary Process and Job Performance 39
2.4. Job Performance in the Civil Service 42
2.4.1 Performance Improvement Strategies: The expected role of supervisor
and Employee 45 Training and Development 46 Organization Development 46 Job Involvement, Job Enrichment and Reengineering 46 Effective Feedback 47 Management Development 47 Removal 47 Implementation of the solution 48
2.4.2 Job Performance, Management, and Progressive Discipline 48 Behavior Problems 49 Performance Problems 49
2.4.3 Developing and Implementing a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) 52
2.4.4 Relationship between Employee training/motivation on the Job
Performance 53
2.4.5 Relationship between EmployeeJob Performance and Feedback 54
2.4.6 The Relationship between Fair Hearing and Job Performance 57
2.5 The Relationship between Discipline and Employee Job Performance 61
2.6 Managing and Measuring Performance in the Civil Service 63
2.6.1 Gross outcome 66
2.6.2 Net outputs 66
2.7 Challenges of Performance Measurement in the Civil Service 67
2.8 Discipline in the Civil Service 69
Content Page
2.9Ethical and Unethical Issue in Civil Service 71
2.10 Gaps in Literature 80
2.11 Theoretical Framework 80
2.11.1 Bureaucratic Theory 80
2.11.2 The Theory of “Just Cause” in Employee Disciplinary Cases 83
3.0 Introduction 89
3.1 The Historical Background of Civil Service in Nigeria 89
3.2. Historical Background of Lagos State 92
3.2.1 Evolution of Civil Service in Lagos State 94
3.3. Historical Background of Ondo State 96
3.3.1 Evolution of Civil Service in Ondo State 97
3.4 Civil Service Reform in Nigeria 98
4.1 Research Design 103
4.2 Population 103
4.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 104
4.4 Method of Data Collection 106
4.5 Sources of Data 106
4.6 Instrument for Data Collection 106
4.7 Validity of the Instrument 107
4.8 Reliability Of Instrument 107
4.9 Method of Data Analysis 108
5.0 Introduction 109
5.1 Analysis of Respondents’ Demographic Data 111
5.2 Analysis of Research Questions 116
5.3 Hypotheses Testing 129
5.4 Qualitative Data Analysis (Analysis of the In-Depth Interview) 133
Content Page
5.5 Discussion of Findings 136
5.5.1 Statutory actions within the civil service 136
5.5.2 Investigation of cases on disciplinary procedure within the civil service 137
5.5.3.Adequate training of civil service personnel of disciplinary procedure 138
5.5.4 Discrimination and biased judgement in disciplinary procedure 139
5.5.5 Job performance within the civil service 140
5.5.6 Awareness of Disciplinary Procedure and Job Performance 141
6.0 Introduction 143
6.1 Summary 143
6.2 Conclusion 145
6.3 Recommendations 146
6.4 Contributions to Knowledge 147
6.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 147
References 148
Appendices 165

Table Page
1 Lagos State Staff Strength as at July 2014 103
2 Ondo State Staff Strength as at July, 2014 104
3 Reliability Test Table 107
5.1 Distribution of Respondents by State and Numbers of Questionnaire 109
5:2 Distribution of Respondents by Gender 111
5:3 Distribution of Respondent by Marital Status 112
5.4 Distribution of the Respondents by Highest Qualification 113
5:5 Distribution of the Respondents by Designation 114
5:6 Distribution of the Respondents by Years of Service in Percentages 115
5:7 Statutory Disciplinary Actions Within the Civil Service 116
5:8 Investigation of cases on Disciplinary Procedure within the
Civil Service 118
5:9 Adequate Training of Civil Service Personnel 120
5:10 Discrimination and Bias Judgment in Disciplinary Procedures in
Civil Service 122
5:11 Awareness of Disciplinary Procedures and Cases within the
Civil service and Job Performance 124
5:12 Job Performance within the Civil Service 127
5:13 Relationship between investigation of Disciplinary cases and
Job Performance 129
5:14: Relationship between Specially Trained Personnel Handling disciplinary
Cases and Job Performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo State
Civil Service 131
5.15 Relationship Between Discriminatory and Biased Judgment in
Disciplinary Procedure and Job performance of Civil Servants 132

Figure Page
1 Interaction of Variables of Disciplinary Procedure and Job Performance 7
2 Examine Disciplinary Procedure Problems and Job Performance 37
3 Disciplinary Procedure andJob Performance Management 51
4 State with Number of Questionnaire Distributed and Retrieved 110
5 Gender Distribution of the Respondents 111
6 Marital Status of the Respondents 112
7 Graphical illustration of the Respondents by Highest Qualification 114
8 Designation of the Respondents 115
9 Years of Service of the Respondents 116

2 Letter of Interview
3 List of Government Ministries of Lagos State
4 List of Government Ministries of Ondo State

1.1 Background to the Study
The Civil Service is an indispensable instrument for the implementation of government policies and programmes. This is because it is through the instrumentality of Civil Service that government policies are translated into services for the people (Maikudi, 2012). On this note, Ugwu-olo (2007) averred that the success or failure of any policy of government is a function of the disposition of the civil servants to its implementation. Similarly, Abasili (2008) argued that no matter how well articulated government programmes may be, they cannot be successfully implemented without effective administrative machinery whose technical competence, loyalty and commitment should translate ministerial policies and programmes into action.
Put differently, there is little or no hope of success in the delivery of Services if the Civil Servants are not professional or ethical in their conducts. According to Gildenhuys (1991), poor, dishonest management of public affairs and corruption (immoral acts) are among the most common manifestations of unethical conduct. Maladministration and corruption in the public sector are usually widely broadcast and exaggerated, largely because the public sector is run with taxpayers’ money. For practitioners in the public sector, especially for public supervisors, it is important that there be guidelines for administering and directing the public service in other toplace subordinates on the right track so as to prevent corruption and eliminate maladministration. It is worthy to note that the Civil Service is the heart, nucleus and core of the public service. The strength and efficiency of the Civil Service are vital to the success of the government machinery as a whole. It is the loyalty and commitment of members of the Civil Service which ensures the effective translation into action of ministerial policies and programs.
The Nigerian Civil Service has its roots in the British system. Lagos and Ondo state Civil Service came into existence with the creation of each state in 1967 and 1976 respectively. Unfortunately, Nigerian Civil Service, and the Civil Service of the component states have had their fair share of political impasse with sundry reforms, thus altering their normal course.
The primary function of the Civil Service in Nigeria is to implement government policies and programmes. The ability of Civil Servants to perform this function effectively depends largely on the quality of training, motivation, integrity of the judges (supervisors) and other players.


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