TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                                      i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                     v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 vii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                               x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           xi


Background of the Study                                                                                                       1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                       10

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                              11

Significance of the Study                                                                                                       12

Scope of the Study                                                                                                                 13

Research Questions                                                                                                                 13

Research Hypotheses                                                                                                              14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                                       15

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                       16

Concept of Emotion                                                                                                               16

Concept of Intelligence                                                                                                          20

Concept of Emotional Intelligence                                                                                         21

Concept of Achievement                                                                                                        24

Concepts of Academic Achievements                                                                                    24

Concept of Gender                                                                                                                 25

Diagrammatic Representation of Conceptual Framework                                                      26


Theoretical Framework                                                                                                        27

Salovey and Mayor Model of Emotional Intelligence                                                            28

Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence                                                                          30

Baron’s Model of Emotional Intelligence                                                                              33

Empirical Studies                                                                                                                  35

Studies on Emotional Intelligence & Academic Achievement                                              35

Studies on gender relationship with emotional intelligence                                                   39

Studies of students’ location and influence on emotional intelligence                                  42

Summary of Literature Review                                                                                              43

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                 46

Design of the Study                                                                                                                46

Area of the Study                                                                                                                   46

Population of the Study                                                                                                          47

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                          47

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                               47

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                                  49

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                                   49

Method of Data Collection                                                                                                     49

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                       50

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS                                                   51

Research Question One                                                                                                          51

Hypothesis one                                                                                                                       52

Research Question Two                                                                                                          52

Hypothesis Two                                                                                                                      53

Research Question Three                                                                                                        53

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                                    54

Research Question Four                                                                                                          55

Hypothesis Four                                                                                                                      56

Research Question Five                                                                                                          56

Hypothesis Five                                                                                                                      57

Research Question Six                                                                                                            58

Hypothesis Six                                                                                                                        59

Research Question Seven                                                                                                       60

Hypothesis Seven                                                                                                                   61

Summary of the findings                                                                                                        63


RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                                                       64

Discussion of the findings                                                                                                      64

Conclusions                                                                                                                             70

Educational implication of the findings                                                                                 71

Recommendations                                                                                                                  72

Limitations of the Study                                                                                                         73

Suggestions for further Studies                                                                                              73

Summary of the Study                                                                                                            74

References                                                                                                                             79

Appendices                                                                                                                            82

APPENDIX A: Students’ Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale                                            82

APPENDIX B: Statistical data of students Sample                                                              85

APPENDIX C: Request for Validation of Instrument                                                          86

APPENDIX D: Ebonyi State Students Enrolment Schedule                                                            87

APPENDIX E: Reliability Analysis                                                                                       88

APPENDIX F: Result of Data Analysis                                                                                89


List of Tables


  1. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of Mood

Regulation and Academic Achievement                                                              53

  1. Regression Analysis of Mood regulation and academic achievement. 54
  2. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of Inter-personal

skill and Academic Achievement.                                                                         54

  1. Regression Analysis of Interpersonal skill and academic achievement. 55
  2. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of Internal

motivation and Academic Achievement.                                                             56

  1. Regression Analysis of Internal motivation and academic achievement. 56
  2. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of self awareness

and Academic Achievement                                                                                  57

  1. Regression Analysis of self awareness and academic achievement. 58
  2. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Empathy

Response and Academic Achievement                                                                58

  1. Regression Analysis of Empathy response and academic achievement. 59
  2. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Students’

Emotional intelligence and academic achievement based on gender.             60

  1. Regression Analysis of Students’ Emotional intelligence and academic

achievement based on gender.                                                                               61

  1. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Students’

Emotional intelligence and academic achievement based on school

location.                                                                                                                     62

  1. Regression Analysis of Students’ Emotional intelligence and academic

achievement based on school location.                                                                63

List of Figures


  1. The interaction of cognitive, emotional and school environment to produce

Students’ achievement                                                                                                      28


  1. The five domains of the emotional intelligence according to Goleman’s Model. 35



The purpose of the study was to investigate the predictive ability of emotional intelligence on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ebonyi state; Nigeria. The population for the study was 21,000 seniour secondary school students of the state. Through stratified random sampling 3 schools were selected from each of the three educational zones, giving nine schools. Using systematic random sampling, 1,200 students were sampled from the schools comprising of 630 females and 570 males. Correlation Survey Design was used in the study. Seven research questions and seven hypotheses were raised to guide the study. Instrument titled Students’ Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale (SEIRS) was used in collecting data for the study. The instrument was validated by three professionals from the faculty of Education of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability index was 0.87. A self delivery technique was used in administering the instrument on the students directly by the researcher. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to provide answers to the research questions, while Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The response format used in analyzing the data was a 4- point – modified Likert rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD) with values of 4,3,2,1 respectively. The result of the study revealed that emotional intelligence predicted academic achievement of senior secondary school students. The five emotional competences: empathy response, mood regulation, interpersonal skills, internal motivation and self awareness have significant correlation with the academic achievement of senior secondary students in Ebonyi state. It was also found that males have relatively more emotional abilities that influence their academic performance than the female counterpart. The result showed that the correlation coefficients obtained for males and females were 0.49 and 0.48 respectively.  Students in schools located in the rural areas were found to have more emotional competences than students in the urban areas. The correlation coefficients obtained for urban and rural students were 0.47 and 0.51 respectively. It was concluded that emotional intelligence is very crucial in students’ academic achievement and when students are trained on the skills, it will significantly improve the performance of students in the schools. Among other educational implications of the study is that, basing students education on the training of the cognitive domain alone is not comprehensive enough for the total development of their intelligence. It was therefore recommended that the study of emotional intelligence and the skills should be introduced in the school system so that students will be trained on how to develop, manage and control emotions for better academic performance in Ebonyi state schools and Nigeria in general.



Background to the Study

The concept of intelligence is one of the prized possessions a person can have. It is a fundamental concept that has become a convenient evaluative expression covering a wide variety of domains (Davey, 2004). Over the years the concept has passed through the laboratories of many psychologists trying to find a definition and explanation for the term. For example, singers are described as having intelligent voices, footballers as having intelligent feet, horses as running intelligent races (Davey, 2004)

Many people use the term in their daily language in a way that suggest that there is agreement about what intelligence is, but psychologist cannot agree at all. According to Santrock (2009) even the most intelligent people have not been able to agree on how to define the concept of intelligence. Some experts describe it as the capacity to adapt and learn from experiences. Some still argue that intelligence includes characteristics such as creativity and interpersonal skills (Santrock, 2009). In general term, some psychologists see intelligence as being a single aptitude while others see it as representing a cluster of aptitudes or mental skills (Davey, 2004)

No common definition, interpretation, understanding and conceptualization of intelligence have been found because of the differences in social and cultural definition of what an intellectual behaviour is. The term is socially constructed, that is, different cultures and people group see it as being whatever attribute that brings success within that group (Sternberg and Kaufman, 1998). . A working definition that would encompass both academic and non-academic definition of intelligence and applies to people of all social and cultural background is what is searched for.

Since 1916, when Binet came out with the first ability test till now, the discussion on intelligence has produced various dimensions of intelligence. Modern scholars of intelligence consider the question of whether intelligence is a single mental ability. (You are either intelligent or not) or whether a number of specific abilities make up the overall intellectual ability. If intelligence comprises a number of abilities, there is also the question of what these specific abilities might be (Plutchik, 1980))

In addressing these issues contemporary research on intelligence has opened new dimensions of the concept of intelligence that makes the definition of intelligence more comprehensive. Sternberg and Defferman (1986) as reported by Davey (2004), asserted that intelligence comprises of learning and adaptive abilities; ability to understand and control oneself; practical problem solving ability; verbal and social competences. It is the ability to learn from experience; apply knowledge to solve problems and to adapt and survive in different environment. Sternberg (2008) and Gardener (1983) argue that the concept of intelligence should be expanded to encompass a greater variety of abilities. Sternberg (2001) proposes what he called Triarchic intelligence in which he propounded that intelligence consists of three forms- the contextual, which specifies behaviors considered to be intelligence in a particular culture; the experiential, which specifies how experience affects intelligence and how intelligence affects a person’s experience; the componential, which specifies the cognitive processes that underlie all intelligent behaviours.

Sternberg believes that the cognitive processes that contribute to intelligence fall into three groups;

  1. Meta component, which controls, monitors and evaluate cognitive processing
  2. Knowledge acquisition component which encodes, combines and compare information and
  3. Performance component which executes strategies assembled by meta component.

According to Him (2009) all the above mentioned components contribute to three aspect of intelligence namely, analytical intelligence which has to do with abstract reasoning, evaluation and judgment. This is the type of intelligence that is crucial to most academic work and that is assessed by conventional Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test; Creative Intelligence, which involves the ability to generate new ideas and to be innovative in dealing with new problems; Practical Intelligence which involves the ability to deal effectively with the kind of problems that people encounter in everyday life, on the job or at home.

For Sternberg, creative and practical intelligence move beyond what the IQ measures and enter into the realm of what Wechsler (1940) called non-intellectual intelligence. That is intelligence applied not by mental or cognitive ability. This is also related to what Gardner (2002) called personal intelligence. In Gardner’s view, there is nothing as a single intelligence; rather he argued that there are at least eight intelligences namely, Verbal skill, Mathematical skill, Spatial skill, Bodily kinestic skill, Musical skills, Interpersonal skills, Intrapersonal skills and Naturalist skills.

In their view, intelligence include for instance, interpersonal and intrapersonal capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the feelings, moods, temperament, motivation and the desires of other people. It also has to do with the ability to access one’s emotion and to discriminate among them and draw upon them to guide behaviours, knowledge of ones strength and weaknesses.


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