EVALUATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN CHOCOLATE, CANDIES AND TOMATO PUREE IMPORTED FROM CHINA

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ABSTRACT

 

This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products tomato puree (Samples A and B) chocolates and candies (Samples C, D, E and F) imported from China, and sold in Nigerian markets. This result as their failure to meet National Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples A, B, C, D, E and F were collected in five markets from each six states of the six geographical zones: North-West (Kano), North-East (Bauchi), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both tomato puree ranged 4.0 – 4.5  mg/g for Cu, 18.0 – 42.5mg/g for Mn, 26.0 – 62.5mg/g for Fe, 4.0 – 56.0mg/g for Ni, 27.0 – 35.2mg/g for Zn, ND – 25.0mg/g for Ti, and ND – 20.0mg/g for Cr while concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 – 4.2  mg/g for Cu, 40.0 – 55.7mg/g for Mn, ND – 102.5mg/g for Fe, ND – 305.0mg/g for Ni, ND – 42.5mg/g for Zn, ND – 23.8mg/g for Ti, and ND – 10.8mg/g for Cr. The concentrations of all the metals studied were generally higher in samples A and B compared to recommended levels of these metals in vegetable crops. Also, the data showed that these metals are at higher levels in samples C, D, E and F compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that sample A (except for Cu and Fe), B, C (except for Cu), D and E are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the metals studied in food. Thus, frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

Chapter One

Introduction

1.1       Background to the study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Justification

1.4       Hypotheses

1.5       Aims and Objectives

1.6       Limitation of the Study

 

Chapter Two

Literature Review

2.1       Environmental Contaminants

2.2       Heavy Metals

2.3       Heavy Metals in Food Source

2.4       Heavy Metals in Chocolates and Candies

2.5       Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables

2.6       Heavy Metal Contamination of Canned Food

2.7       Toxicity of Heavy Metals

2.8       Choice of Analytical Techniques

2.8.1    Principle of X-Ray Fluorescence

 

 

Chapter Three

Materials and Methods

3.1       Materials

3.1.1    Study Area

3.1.2    Sample Collection

3.2       Methods

3.2.1    Sample Preparation and Analysis

3.2.2    Statistical Analysis

 

Chapter Four

Results

4.1       Metals in Canned Tomato Puree

4.2       Heavy Metals in Chocolates and Candies

4.3       Estimated Daily Intake of Metals

 

Chapter Five

Discussion

5.1       Metals in Canned Tomato Puree

5.2       Heavy Metals in Chocolates and Candies

5.3       Estimated Daily Intake of Metals

 

Chapter Six

Conclusion and Recommendation

6.1       Conclusion

6.2       Recommendation

References

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