EXTENT OF UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) IN TEACHING AND LEARNING BY LECTURERS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN ENUGU STATE
Background of the Study
Globally, technology is changing the world at an unbelievable rate. According to Oden and Asim (2002), any nation that ignores scientific literacy may find it difficult to fit into the world affairs. Nigeria is not an exception; as a result, all effort must be put in place to meet up with challenges ahead. The concept of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is as a result of the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). According to Yenice (2006), Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is instruction or remediation presented on a computer to illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. CAI is a kind of instruction that exploit computer software to assist teachers teach information or skills related to a particular topic and students can interact directly with lessons programmed into the computer system, (Roblyer, 2004).
According to Aladejana (2013), in the past, classrooms were a circle of memorization, repetition, and note copying. Today, ICT has increasingly changed the way and manner in which knowledge is delivered. Right from childhood, children in the 21st century glue endlessly to television watching cartoons, playing games and other ICT related materials. Technology has become an integral part of our everyday lives. At home, learners come in contact with mobile phones, television, computer, internet, games cash registers, bar-code scanners, traffic light, automatic doors, security cameras, remote controls, fax machines. The conflict then arise when such students get to the classroom and are still expected to sit and listen, write and regurgitate learning materials (Aladejana and Idowu, 2006; Aladejana 2011). Thus, the 21st century classroom must be matched with 21st century education which should be flexible, creative, challenging, complex and above all leaner-centered.
The present state of teaching and learning in Colleges of Education is a concern to all. College of Education according to Ugwuoke (2013), is a tertiary institution that prepares teachers for a minimum of three years to make them qualify to teach their respective subjects, namely: Agriculture, Computer Education, Languages, Social Sciences, Arts and Physics in primary and Post Primary Schools. College of Education according to Teboho (2000) ‘is one of the tertiary levels of education saddled with the responsibility for implementation of teacher education programme in Nigeria under the Supervision of National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). They offer post secondary Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) training Programmes. The NCE is also the minimum teaching qualification required for teaching in primary since 1998, Junior Secondary Schools and technical College. Some of the colleges also offer NCE pre – primary courses in order to produce teachers for the pre-primary level of education. The National Commission for College of Education (NCCE) minimum standard for employment as lecturers in this college is first degree, second class upper, credit in a teaching subject. These lecturers are assigned the responsibility of essentially facilitating teaching and learning. A lecturer is a teaching staff of Colleges of Education that is assigned with the responsibility of ensuring that the objectives of establishing College of Education are achieved. They are primarily responsible for teaching, research and promoting the objectives of Colleges of Education through graduation of teachers for primary, pre-primary and post-primary schools.
These lecturers comprise both male and female with at least two or three years teaching experiences. The lecturer must also register with the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria. Some of this Colleges of Education are located in cities and town while some are located in remote area without the needed infrastructural services such as electricity, good road, network cables, but in most cases the Colleges are sited based on political reasons. The location of the College of Education is also very important in deciding whether Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) can be used to facilitate teaching and learning. CAI works with Electricity and presence of Network services, where these do not exist, it may be difficult to use CAI as teaching methods. He must also have undergone teachers’ training program in Education to be certified as a lecturer.
According to Fafunwa as cited in Olelewe (2010), teaching is defined as a conscious and deliberate effort made by a matured or experienced person to impart knowledge to immature or less experienced person with the intension that the letter will learn. According to Aladejana (2007), teaching at various levels still retains the old conservative approach with the teacher, in most cases, acting as the repertoire of knowledge and the students as dominant recipients. There is over-reliance on textbooks and only occasional demonstrations and experimental classes. In an average classroom, one finds a teacher at the blackboard putting important facts while students furiously copy all that is written and said and are expected to memorize the facts and spit them out in examinations.
Teaching and learning is an organized instructional process that is consciously geared towards transforming and developing learners’ intellectual ability, skills, ethics and values to enable them function effectively and become self-reliant, and contribute positively to societal development. Ede (2009) views teaching as a means of learning where learning is active, intentional, and motivational and a social process of knowledge construction and decision making.
Learning process entails the initiation, modification and change of perceptual order through active engagement of learners in the learning activities (Nurmi & Jaakkola, 2006). In the context of this study, teaching and learning is a joint description of teacher and learner’s complimentary and interdependent classroom activities initiated and directed towards helping the learners to access knowledge, increase understanding, develop concepts and practice skills to achieve a set of learning objectives and specified standards within a formal school system.
Okoro (2002), defined learning as a process by which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired through study, instruction or experience. In the context of this study learning encompasses the way and means by which learners used computer aided instruction facilities to acquire new or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values or preferences to enable them improve their performances or reorganize their thinking as a result of their active, intentional, motivational involvement in the process of knowledge construction, decision making and attitude development towards the utilization of CAI in a school setting. Utilization according to Raghu, (2009), is the primary method by which asset performance is measured and business determined. It is the transformation of set of input into goods or services (Subba, 2009). It involves creation of value in things. Utilization in this context refers to the extent to which computer aided instruction is put into use or services by lecturers in college of education in their teaching and learning processes.
Extent on the other hand refers to how far the computer aided instruction have been contributing in the teaching and learning in Colleges of Education as regards to provision of knowledge and skills (Ngoka, 2003). Several researchers have identified the importance of CAI in education. It has been found that CAI allows learners to progress at their own pace and work individually to solve problems either in a group or individually. Computers Assisted Instruction provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether selected answer is correct or wrong. Egunjobi (2002), opined that that if an answer is incorrect, the programme shows students how to correctly answer the question. Computers offer a different type of activities and could offer a change of pace from teacher-led or group instruction.
CAI improves instruction for pupils to receive immediate feedback. Computer programmes can present instruction at the learners’ pace and keep track of the learners’ errors and progress. Computers capture the learners’ attention because the programmes are interactive and engage the learners’ spirit of competitiveness to increase their scores. Also, CAI moves at the learners’ pace and usually does not move ahead until they have mastered the skill (Yenice, 2006). Ekpe (2007), indentified the importance to include assisting students’ understanding of concepts, enhancing students’ motivation in exploring, investigating, conjecturing, creating and discovering principles and making generalization and connections. According to Guha (2003), CAI ensures student involvement in the learning process; and developing students’ problem-solving abilities by allowing them to analyze and decompose a problem by using systematic trial and error to find solution (Roblyer, 2004). CAI allows for instructional delivery through project based learning, peer teaching, dramatization/role play, uses of field trips, demonstration and multimedia. As a tool, it is very effective in many ways especially in instructional delivery. CAI can also be used for individualized instructions, giving immediate feedback evaluate students answers while the questions are fresh in their mind. Furthermore Computer Aided Instruction can also be used in collaborative learning. This is an instructional methodology that provides opportunities for student to develop skills in group interaction and in working with others that are needed in today’s world.