INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OBIO-AKPOR LGA, RIVERS STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Title page
- Table of contents
Chapter One: Introduction
- Background to the study
- Statement of the problem
- Purpose of the study
- Significance of the study
- Scope of the study
- Research questions
- Research hypothesis
- Operational definition of terms
Chapter two: Review of related literature
2.1 Factors affecting the academic performance of students
2.2 instructional materials
2.2.1 Types of instructional materials
2.2.2 Importance of instructional materials
2.3 School facilities and students’ academic performance
2.4 School environment and students’ academic performance
Chapter three: Methodology
3.1 Research design
3.2 Study area
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Validity of the instrument
3.7 Reliability of the instrument
3.8 Method of data collection
3.9 Method of data analysis
Chapter four: Results
4.1 Availability and adequacy of instructional materials
4.2 Availability and adequacy of school facilities
4.3 Utilization of instructional materials
4.4 Utilization of school facilities
4.5 Effect of instructional materials on students’ academic performance
4.6 Effect of school facilities on students’ academic performance
4.7 Relationship between available instructional materials and students’ academic performance
4.8 Relationship between available school facilities and students’ academic performance
Chapter five: Discussion
- Conclusion and recommendations
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Instructional materials are that things that enables students to have mental picture of what has been taught and to retain the message in their memory for a very long time e.g. Radio, Television, Chalkboard, Charts, Micro-Projectors, Still Pictures, Specimen e.t.c. It can be referred to as those things that the classroom teacher uses to impact knowledge to pupils in the classroom in order to achieve his objectives.
According to Ogunmola, (2002) cited instructional materials as visual or audio visual materials which facilitate the assimilation of organization. Infact, for effective teaching and learning to take place, instructional materials are can exist without adequate use of computer science education programme can exist with adequate use of computer equipments examples of such equipment are computer, monitor, keyboard, typewriter, mouse, scanner, printer, duplicating machine e.t.c these science equipments are indispensable to a good computer science teaching and training and learning.
It is no gain saying that interest in learning computer science is increasing in Nigeria. Each local government area is trying t o improve on the production of technology. This is justify for computer science has totally assured great importance interest role of national power and productivity. According to the new trend of computer science, teaching has as shown a radical departure of traditional expository mode, in favour of practical and inquiry method to the inclusion of problems solving and active involvement of people in the open minded fielding practical exercise.
Some of the objectives of computer science in junior secondary school are as follows
- to develop a computer scientific attitude
- to develop interest in an appreciation of the plan of life through the computer
- to develop or help the child acquire a scientific method of solving problems
- to also help the child acquire a useful knowledge of computer science
- to also help the child acquire a useful knowledge of computer scientific principles
In view of this, it can therefore be assumed that uniqueness facilities and equipment are available in junior secondary school. For practical works pupils will not derive much from the attempt to learn computer science. It has been stressed by Howard (2003) when he said what we learn is what we do” doing what we learn in computer science requires the use of practical work. We also have the bear in mind that at least some of the pupils would or may need to become professionally computer list. Such pupils need the equipment to be able to develop necessary practical skills. Beside, the basic sources of computer science experience is of course of direct contact which objects and events it’s in nature outside the classroom
Specifically some specific educational reasons to have equipment for teaching was summarized by Balogun (2000) as follows
- It enables the learners to develop functional and manipulating skills
- It enables the learner to develop problem solving skill and scientific attitude
The acquisition of these skills is the contribution of computer science education in the general preparation of the youth with emphasis on activities based on child centered learning coupled with pupils enrolment into school in the face of corresponding decline economy. It is against the background that we can appreciate the significance of the question “the important role of computer science equipment in secondary school
Regarding available school resources Ogunsaju (1980) emphasized that, quality of education that students receive depends on the availability of an overall school facilities in which teaching and learning takes place. Quality, relevance and access to education can be attained if and only if educational materials are properly available and utilized in an educational institution.
Educational resources are means through which information is effectively communicated from the teacher to the learners. In the school settings, textbooks, all types of buildings (academic and non-academic), equipments, classroom facilities, furniture, instructional materials, audiovisual aids, toilet, computers, library and laboratory materials make up important school facilities that are required for effective learning.
Buckley et al., (2004) states that school facilities enable the teacher to accomplish his/her task as well and help the learner to learn and achieve effectively. Additionally, they emphasized that the availability and proper use of school facilities can affect the interest of the teacher to teach effectively in turn that positively affects student’s academic achievement.
Lawrence (2003) emphasized that the unavailability of school resources negatively affects staff and students motivation. A good school environment and adequate school facility have a significant positive effect on teacher’s motivation and student’s achievement.
Furthermore, O’Neill (2000) described that school facility impacts on student achievement, attendance and teacher retention. Reyonds, et al., (1996) found that a negative impact on student achievement where school facilities. Adequate and quality school facilities are basic ingredients for quality education and to achieve the intended goal of the school program (Khan and Iqbal, 2012). They also strengthen the idea by emphasizing that learning is a complex activity that requires students and teachers’ motivation, adequate school facilities such as standardized buildings and classrooms with their facilities, instructional materials and equipment for child’s development.
Students’ academic performance is the product of evaluation (formative or summative evaluation) after instruction has been passed by the teacher. Students’ academic performance is an aspect of education that has been and still is of great concern to parents, school managers, educational researchers and policy makers in both developing and developed nations (Makori and Onderi, 2013). There are many factors affecting the academic performance of students in Nigeria some of which include peer pressure, students’ poor study habit, examination malpractice, cultism, drug abuse, truancy, poor school infrastructure and instructional materials. Poor quality and inadequate instructional materials and educational facilities in schools are problems the parents, teachers, schools, school administrators, government at all levels and policy makers are responsible for. The resultant effects have been unfolding over the years in Nigeria in terms of continuous poor academic performance of students without prompt intervention by the stakeholders. Facilities provided in schools at all levels are rather inadequate to cater for the need of the ever increasing number of students. Poor quality of teachers and lack of constant training on how to effectively use and manage the available resource is adding to this woe.
Nigeria remains a major defaulter in complying with the UNESCO recommendations that at least 26% of the National budget must be committed to education. The 2009 Federal government budget of N3 trillion has allocated only N183 billion to education. This translates to a mere 6% allocated to education. Osakwe (2009) pointed out that this is still below the UNESCO recommendation. These allocations were not quite adequate, as the institutions had not much to show in terms of rehabilitation for funds made available by the government (Umunadi, 2008).
BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
Obio-Akpor is a local government area in the metropolis of Port Harcourt, one of the major centres of economic activities in Nigeria, and one of the major cities of the Niger Delta, located in Rivers State. The local government area covers 260 km2 and at the 2006 Census held a population of 464,789. Its postal code or ZIP code is 500102. Obio-Akpor has its headquarters at Rumuodomaya. The original indigenous occupants of the area are the Ikwerre people.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The persistent poor performance of secondary school students in computer studies and continuous decline in quality of students for higher institutions in Nigeria are causing serious concern in education system. One of the major problems confronting effective computer studies teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria is lack of materials and equipment for teaching and learning process as well. The terrible performance of students in computer studies in examinations had been significantly ascribed to inadequate educational resources.
Okoro (1998) pointed out that the facilities which include the buildings, equipment, tools and school materials available are inadequate for effective use in schools. Oranu (1990) revealed that lacks of physical facilities are the problems of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. On the problems existing in the schools and the system of education, it is lack of materials and necessary equipment in teaching science and technology subjects (Aromolaran, 1985).
It is also not uncommon that facilities in most Nigerian public schools are dilapidated and inadequate to provide quality education service delivery (Sanusi, 1998). Afolabi (2002), reported that in Ondo state the classrooms in most of the schools were inadequate in terms of decency, space, ventilation and insulation from heat; the incinerators and urinal were not conveniently placed, and the school plant was poorly maintained; these combined deficiencies constituted a major gap in the quality of learning environment, thus the attendant result of non attainment of the set standards and goals in secondary schools.
The deteriorating condition and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students’ academic performance. This is evident as the results of Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council and the National Examination Council were extremely poor in Nigeria between 2007 and 2010.
According to Fafunwa (2010), there is a big gap in quality, resulting from large number of students in crowded classrooms, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusioned teachers. These combined deficiencies perhaps constituted a major gap in the quality of learning infrastructure, thus, many challenges bear on teaching and learning that prevent the education system from getting the best out of its efforts to achieve the required level of attainment in teaching and learning activities in secondary schools.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to examine the effects of instructional materials and educational facilities on the academic performance of students’ in secondary schools in Silame L. G., Sokoto state.
The study specifically aims at finding out the following:
- The availability and adequacy of instructional materials and educational facilities in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State.
- The utilization of instructional materials and educational facilities in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State.
- The effects of instructional materials and educational facilities on the academic performance of students’ in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will provide useful information especially to the Rivers state government and to the federal government at large. It will inform the Rivers state government on how available and adequate instructional materials and educational facilities are in her secondary schools in Rivers local government.
This study will further enlighten the Rivers state government on how the present condition of instructional materials and educational facilities in its schools are affecting the academic performance of students. It will provide insight into the areas of instructional materials and educational facilities that are most lacking in the schools and needs prompt intervention. This is because it is not enough for the government to supply these educational resources; it must meet specific need of the learners.
The study will reveal how well teachers have been utilizing the available instructional materials and educational facilities. It will also determine problems encountered by teachers with the use of instructional materials and educational facilities for effective learning.
The result of this study could provide school administrators / school principals some useful information or clues on possible causes and solutions to students’ poor academic performance. The information will perhaps prompt the school administrators to supervise more closely, the efficacious use of the available instructional materials and educational facilities and probably resolve into improvisation.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will investigate the effects Influence Of Instructional Materials On Teaching And Learning Of Computer Studies In Secondarys In Obio-Akpor Lga, Rivers State. This will be carried out in all the three (3) secondary schools owned by the state in the local government.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- To what extent are instructional materials and school facilities available and adequate in the schools?
- How well are the available instructional materials and school facilities utilized?
- What is the effect of the instructional materials and school facilities on the academic performance of the learners?
- What is the type of relationship between the available instructional materials and school facilities and students’ academic performance?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses will be tested at (p < 0.05) significance level:
Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant relationship between the available instructional materials and students’ academic performance.
Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant relationship between the available school facilities and students’ academic performance.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Learning: Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience in the learners’ environment.
Education: It is the process by which knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits are being acquired or transferred from one person to another.
Instructional materials: It is the means through which information (knowledge, skills, and values) is being transferred to the students.
School facilities: These comprise of physical infrastructures, machines and equipments within the school premises that support learning, convenience and aesthetics e.g. classroom, toilet, football field etc.
Secondary school: It is a school that provides secondary education after primary school and before higher or tertiary school education.
Academic performance: It is the extent to which the student has achieved the predetermined educational objectives after evaluation using examination or continuous assessment.
Students: Is a person in a particular institute of learning who want to acquire knowledge, skills, value or competence.