The study is on Management and organizational performance in the banking industry in Kogi State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are: to ascertain the extent to which planning, organising, directing and controlling affect organisational performance in the Nigerian banking sector; to assess how training affect employees’ performance; to determine the role of performance appraisal on organisational performance in Nigerian banks and to identify how motivation affects employees performance in the Nigerian banking industry. The study had a population of 1219 out of which a sample size of 301 was realized using Taro Yamane statistical formula. The instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was structured on five-point Likert scale in line with the objectives of the study. The instrument was checked for reliability using  Cronbach’s Alpha statistical tool.  An Alpha of 0.98 and an inter-item (standardised) coefficient of 0.99 were obtained. The study employed survey research design. The questionnaire was administered to senior and junior staff of each of the banks studied. The total number of questionnaire distributed for the study was three hundred and one (301) copies while two hundred and eighty (280) representing 93 % were completed and returned. The findings show that: planning, organising, directing and controlling enable organisations meet goals and objectives in the most effective and efficient manner; training removes performance deficiencies and improves employees’ skills and proficiency; performance appraisal identifies individual strengths to be built and areas of weaknesses to be overcome which will in turn lead to performance improvement; performance improves when an employee has responsibility, personal growth and achievement and also recognised. The study recommends that; management should make employee satisfaction a strategic corporate goal in order to make the organization have improved performance; recognition as a motivational tool should be given enough attention in the Nigerian banking industry; the employees should be communicated and clearly explained the purpose as well as the process of appraisal. Workers should be trained and retrained from time to time in order to update their knowledge for performance of their tasks.



Approval                                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                v

Abstract                                                                                                                                   vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                         ix

List of figures                                                                                                                         ix


1.1       Background of the study                                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                                           2

1.3       Objectives of the study                                                                                               3

  •    Research questions                                                                                                      3

1.5       Research hypotheses                                                                                                   4

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                            4

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                                      5

1.8       Limitations of the study                                                                                             5

1.9       Definition of key terms                                                                                               5

1.10    Historical background of the organizations under study                                            6

References                                                                                                                  9


2.1       Theoretical framework on management                                                                      10

2.2       Functions of management                                                                                           13

2.3       Principles of management                                                                                           19

2.4       Establishing a culture of lifelong training/learning in the workplace             25

2.5       Performance appraisal                                                                                                 36

2.6       Motivation                                                                                                                  44

References                                                                                                                  52


  • Sources of data                                                                                                           56

3.2       Population of the study                                                                                              56

  •   Determination of sample size                                                                                      57

3.4       Description of research instrument                                                                             58

3.5.      Validity of the instrument                                                                                                      58

  •   Reliability of the instrument                                                                                       59
  •      Data analysis techniques                                                                                             59


4.1      Data presentation and analysis                                                         62

  • Data analysis                                                                                                                62
  • Discussion of results                                                                                                    82


5.1       Summary of major findings                                                                                        84

  •   Conclusion                                                                                                                  84
  •   Recommendations                                                                                                      84

5.5       Contribution to knowledge                                                                                         85

5.6       Suggestion for further work                                                                                       85

Bibliography                                                                                                               86





Table 3.1     Population distribution                                                                                        56

Table 3.2     Tabular presentation of sample size                                                                    58

Table 4. 1    Distribution and return of questionnaire                                                             62

Table 4.2    Age distribution of the respondents                                                                    62

Table 4.3     Sex distribution of the respondents                                                                    63

Table 4.4     Educational level of respondents                                                                        63

Table 4.5     The extent to which planning, organizing, directing, and controlling

affect organizational performance in the Nigerian banking sector                     64


Table 4.6     The extent to which planning, organizing, directing, and controlling

affect organizational performance in the Nigerian banking sector                    65


Table 4.7     The extent to which planning, organizing, directing, and controlling

affect organizational performance in the Nigerian banking sector                    66

Table 4.8     The extent to which planning, organizing, directing, and controlling

affect organizational performance in the Nigerian banking sector                    66


Table 4.9      Condensed responses of the two questions for testing hyposthesis 1               66

Table 4.10   Aggregate response for the four banks category of staff                                   67

Table 4.11   Expected frequency for hypothesis one                                                              67

Table 4.12   Ranks                                                                                                                  68

Table 4.13   Test statistics                                                                                                       68

Table 4.14   How training affects employees’ performance                                                   69

Table 4.15   How training affects employees’ performance                                                   69

Table 4.16   Condensed outcome of the four questions for hypothesis two                          70

Table 4.17   Aggregate response for the four banks                                                               70

Table 4.18   Descriptive Statistics                                                                                          71

Table 4.19   Correlations                                                                                                         71

Table 4.20    t-Test                                                                                                                  72

Table 4.21    One-Sample Test                                                                                                73

Table 4.22:  The role of performance appraisal on organizational performance   74

Table 4.23   The role of performance appraisal on organizational performance                     74

Table 4.24   The role of performance appraisal on organizational performance                     75

Table 4.25   The role of performance appraisal on organizational performance                     75

Table 4.26:  Condensed responses of four questions.                                                             76

Table 4.27:  Aggregate response for the four banks                                                               76

Table 4.28   Expected frequencies for Hypothesis three                                                        77

Table 4.29   Rank                                                                                                                    77

Table 4.30  Test statistics                                                                                                        78

Table 4.31   How motivation affects employee’s performance in Nigerian banks                 79               Table 4.32 How motivation affects employee’s performance in Nigerian banks                   79

Table 4.33  How motivation affects employee’s performance in Nigerian banks    80

Table 4.34   How motivation affects employee’s performance in Nigerian banks                 80

Table 4.35  Condensed responses of four questions                                                               81

Table 4.36  Aggregate responses of the four banks                                                                81

Table 4.37  Expected frequencies of the four bank                                                                81

Table 4.38  Rank                                                                                                                     82

Table 4.39  Test statistics                                                                                                        82






Every organisation is judged by its performance. For more than a decade, organisational environments have experienced radical changes. As a result of greater competition in the global marketplace, the majority of organisations have greatly streamlined their operations (Collis and Montgomery, 1995). Every moment presents a diverse set of challenges and obstacles: laws and regulations are evolving, the economy is altering, and most importantly, no one is aware of what problems or obstacles will arise. Other environmental factors, both external and internal are there for organisations to grapple with. To remain competitive in such an environment, an organisation needs to get the most out of its assets, especially the human assets. To achieve this, proper management of the performance of an organisation’s resources have to be given serious attention.


Effective management of people within an organisation has over the years become a business imperative. The collective focus and effort towards achieving desired goals, and the ability to deliver and manage effectively, is necessary to drive business results on an ongoing basis. Employees play a vital role in organisational success. Their performance has been shown to have a significant positive effect on organisational performance (Collis and Montgomery, 1995). One of the major pitfalls in an organisation occurs when managers believe their organisations are constantly operating at the highest level of efficiency, or that they do not require input from their employees (Foot and Hook, 1999).


The principal influence on organisation’s performance is the quality of the workforce at all levels of the organisation. The function that human resources can play in gaining a competitive advantage for an organisation is empirically well documented (Brewster et al, 2003). For organisations to accomplish their goals, they must continually look for better ways to organise and manage their work. There is a growing recognition that the primary source of competitive advantage is derived from organisation’s human resources. This was not always the case, as human resources were traditionally seen as a cost (Brewster, et al., 2003).


Due to the realisation that people are the most valuable assets in an organisation, the importance of proper management has been pushed to the fore (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1995). The complexity of managing organisations today requires managers to view performance in several areas simultaneously.

Managing performance is an integral part of effective human resource management and development strategy. It is an ongoing and joint process where the employee, with the assistance of the employer, “strives to improve the employee’s individual performance and his contributions to the organisation’s wider objectives” (Hellriegel et al, 2004:135).


A successful management system is one that requires full participation between employees and managers through effective communication and goal agreement, resulting in complete common understanding and not unfounded expectations (Cambell et al, 1993). A well-executed management system is a medium for managers and employees to develop an understanding of what tasks the mission of the organisation requires, the manner in which these tasks should be accomplished, and to what extent it has been achieved. Employees should be empowered and receive support from their manager without removing any of the employee’s responsibility (Armstrong and Baron, 1998).


Management helps to link together individual goals, departmental purposes and organisational objectives is known to incorporate issues that are central to many other elements of human resource management such as appraisal, and employee development, performance-related pay and reward management, and individualism and employee relations. Indeed it has been argued that performance management is synonymous with the totality of day to day management activity because it is concerned with how work can be organised in order to achieve the best possible results in an organisation. Management is concerned with performance improvement in order to achieve organisational, team and individual effectiveness. Organisations, as stated by Lawson (1995:205), have ‘to get the right things done successfully’.


It can be seen that the individual’s performance has an impact on the organisation’s wider objectives, and it is thus imperative that every organisation should be properly managed. Given this background, it is therefore necessary to investigate how to manage performance as a means of achieving organisational objectives.





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