MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS OF THE NIGERIAN AVIATION INDUSTRY: A SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF THE NIGERIAN CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY (NCAA)

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ABSTRACT

Aviation is a phenomenon which every country is conversant with. Since countries must interact with one another, and movement between countries is made by air, the maintenance of reliable aviation authorities is considered imperative. Hence, this study sets out to investigate the managerial problems of the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA – The regulatory body of the Nigerian Aviation Industry), and present a framework which can be adopted for a better management of the industry. It is therefore focused on a systems analysis of NCAA. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, whereby data were collected through the use of questionnaire and secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, newspapers and articles from NCAA. The proportional stratified sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents. Two hundred and fifty – six copies of the questionnaire were distributed. Based on two hundred and forty copies returned, data were analysed, using Chi – square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study reveal that there is a significant relationship between the integration among the component systems within NCAA and low performance. There is no relationship between the surveillance capacity of NCAA and low performance. Also revealed by the study is that the control system in NCAA has an adverse effect on its overall performance. Finally, the study showed that the available network of information is both inadequate and unreliable, thus making effective control a near illusion. Inadequate information, aggravated by poor radar coverage, has remained the main reason behind NCAA’s inability to maintain effective control of airlines and parastatals. The recommendations made for better performance include merging of airlines, undisputed adherence to the rules and regulations of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA), provision of adequate radar coverage, and others.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgments   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Table of Contents     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

List of Tables            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

List of Figures           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

Appendices   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xiv

 

CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           1
  • Brief History of NCAA –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Statement of Research Problem    –           –           –           –           –           7
  • Objectives of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           8
  • Research Questions –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8
  • Hypotheses –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9
  • Scope of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9
  • Limitations of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           10
  • Significance of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           11

References    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

 

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18
  • Observed/Recorded Lapses in the Aviation Sector –           –           18
  • Perceiving Aviation from a Systems Perspective –           –           29

2.3.1   Organizations as Systems   –           –           –           –           –           –           34

  • The Concept of Management –           –           –           –           –           53
  • Organizations as Open Systems –           –           –           –           –           61
    • Characteristics of Open Systems –           –           –           –           –           68
  • Organizations as Cybernetic Systems –           –           –           –           69
    • Situation Awareness in Aviation –           –           –           –           –           73
    • Concept of a Cybernetic System –           –           –           –           –           75
    • A Descriptive Analysis of NCAA –           –           –           –           –           77
    • Control as a Feedback System –           –           –           –           –           81
  • Bad Management –           –           –           –           –           –           –           83
    • Symptoms of Bad Management –           –           –           –           –           84
    • Causes of Bad Management in Nigerian Organizations –           –           84
    • Solving Problems of Bad Management –           –           –           –           87

References    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           89

 

CHAPTER THREE:   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           98

3.1       Research Design       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           98

3.2       Sources of Data        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           99

3.2.1   Primary sources        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           99

3.2.2   Secondary Sources –           –           –           –           –           –           –           100

3.3       Study Population      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           100

3.4       Sample Size Determination            –           –           –           –           –           101

3.5       Research Instruments          –           –           –           –           –           –           102

3.6       Sample Selection Method   –           –           –           –           –           –           102

3.7       Method of Data Analysis    –           –           –           –           –           –           104

3.8       Validity and Reliability of Test Instruments       –           –           –           104

References    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           106

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:   PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • Introduction –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           107
  • Presentation of Data –           –           –           –           –           –           107
  • Responses of the Respondents –           –           –           –           –           112
  • Testing of Hypotheses –           –           –           –           –           –           145

 

CHAPTER FIVE:   DISCUSSIONS ON FINDINGS

  • Introduction – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           157
  • Relationship between Level of Integration among Component

Parts within NCAA and Low Performance           –           –           –           157

  • Relationship between the Surveillance Capacity of NCAA and Low Performance     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           158
  • Relationship between NCAA’s Control Capacity and Low Performance –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           159
  • Relationship between Control Problems and Communication within NCAA            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           161

References    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           164

 

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Research –           –           –           –           –           –           166
  • Summary of Findings –           –           –           –           –           –           167
  • Conclusion –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           167
  • Contribution to Knowledge –           –           –           –           –           168
  • Recommendations –           –           –           –           –           –           –           168

Bibliography –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           171

Appendix       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           182

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1        Catalogue of Air Tragedies in Nigeria –    –           –           –           27

Table 4.4.1    Contingency Table for Respondents’ Opinion on the

Effectiveness of NCAA’s Surveillance Capacity           –           150

Table 4.4.3    Contingency Table for the Control and Performance

Problem         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           153

Table 4.4.4.   Revised Cross Classification Table          –           –           –           153

Table 4.4.5    Contingency Table for the Communication and Control

Problem         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           155

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 2.1           The Reason Model   –           –           –           –           –           –           19

Fig. 2.2           Organisational Indictors of Safety Culture –        –           –           20

Fig. 2.3           Cynefin Framework of Contextual Complexity –           –           31

Fig. 2.4           The Onion Concept –           –           –           –           –           –           32

Fig. 2.5           Product Layout         –           –           –           –           –           –           35

Fig. 2.6           Effect of Goal Difficulty on Performance            –           –           40

Fig. 2.7           Intergroup Management Strategies            –           –           –           42

Fig. 2.8           Types of Business Environment    –           –           –           –           46

Fig. 2.9           The Direct – Action and Indirect – Action Environments

of an Organization   –           –           –           –           –           –           47

Fig. 2.10         Management as a Process   –           –           –           –           –           54

Fig. 2.11         The Basic Elements of a System    –           –           –           –           62

Fig. 2.12         Open Systems View of Organizations      –           –           –           65

Fig. 2.13         Threat Matrix            –           –           –           –           –           –           67

Fig. 2.14         Abstract Model of a Cybernetic System   –           –           –           69

Fig. 2.15         Relationship between Information and Entropy             –           –           72

Fig. 2.16         An Abstract Model of a Cybernetic System        –           –           76

Fig. 2.17         Model of NCAA as a Cybernetic System             –           –           77

Fig. 2.18         Feedback Loop of Management Control –           –           –           81

Fig. 2.19         Simple Feedback      –           –           –           –           –           –           82

Fig. 4.1           Survey Result from Table 4.2.2     –           –           –           –           109

Fig. 4.2           Survey Result from Table 4.2.3     –           –           –           –           110

Fig. 4.3           Survey Result from Table 4.3.7     –           –           –           –           117

Fig. 4.4           Survey Result from Table 4.3.10   –           –           –           –           119

Fig. 4.5           Survey Result from Table 4.3.11   –           –           –           –           121

Fig. 4.6           Regions of Rejection and Non Rejection for the Analysis

of Variance at the  5% Level of Significance with 3 and 24

Degree of Freedom –                    –           147

Fig. 4.7           Determination of the Critical Value of Chi-Square at the

.05 Level of Significance with Degrees of Freedom       –           149

Fig. 4.8           Determination of the Acceptance and Rejection Regions for Chi-square at the 0.05 Level of Significance with 12 Degrees of Freedom        –           152

Fig. 4.9           Determination of the Critical Value of Chi-square at the

.05 Level of Significance with 3 Degrees of Freedom   –           155

 

 

APPENDICES

Appendix 1:  University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus      –           –           –           182

 

Appendix 2:  Calculation of the Coefficient of Correlation to Determine

the Validity of Instrument —         –           –           –           –           188

 

Appendix 3:  Calculation of the Coefficient of Correlation to Determine

Reliability of Instrument     –           –           –           –           –           190

 

Appendix 4a:  Respondents’ Opinion on the Level of Interaction among the

Component Systems within NCAA Groups  –    –           –           192

 

Appendix 4b:              Computation of Total Sum of Squares, TSS –    –           –           193

 

Appendix 4c:              Computation of within Group Variation –          –           –           194

 

Appendix 5a:              Calculation of Theoretical Frequencies     –           –           196

 

Appendix 5b:   Computation of Chi-Square Test Statistic for Surveillance

Capacity of NCAA –          –           –           –           –           –           196

 

Appendix 6a:   Calculation of Theoretical Frequencies            –           –           –           197

 

Appendix 6b:              Computation of Chi-Square Test Statistic for the Control

and Performance Problem            –           –           –           –           –           198

 

Appendix 7a:              Calculation of Theoretical Frequencies      –           –           199

 

Appendix 7b:              Computation of Chi-Square Test Statistic for Communication

in NCAA      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           199

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Incessant air mishaps have paved way for concern over air safety.  These mishaps in turn, have been aggravated by poor airport safety and security. To maintain a reputable safety culture, proper crew selection and  training must be guaranteed. Ofojebe (2007:15) explains that the ultimate  success or failure of an organization is attributed to the efforts of all the  organization clearly depends on the collective performance of its  individual administrators. Ude (1990:44) states clearly that most of the   problems confronting organizations in Nigeria are management related.

 

A statistics released by Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN)   in February 2006 showed that, with respect to international passenger   movement, a total of 114,950 was recorded for passengers coming into the  country from the West Africa sub-region and other parts of Africa as opposed to 245, 200 recorded in the previous year. Mail movement at the   airport also experienced a sharp drop-in patronage. At the Murtala  Muhammed airport Lagos, mail tonnage dropped by 308.116kg within six  months. (September, 2005 to February, 2006). At the Aminu Kano  International Airport, cargo movement dropped from 17,828,621 to   15,246,173 within 6 months.

 

Internal Reports available show that the Nigerian aviation sector   is poorly rated in terms of safety. This is attributed to the very many air   tragedies that occurred  in  the country’s airspace.   For example, in   December 2005, a damning report of the Federal Aviation  Administration (FAA) of the United States of America (USA) revealed faults in 16 Nigerian Aircrafts. The report, which led to the grounding of    the Boeing 737 (100, 200 and 200C series) aircraft, alleged faults in the   model. In his work, Oladede (2006:2) argues that Nigeria has not been a   reference in the air transport industry in Africa”.

 

Annan (2006:2) expressed bitterly what many in the international  circles called “frustration” on the part of international agencies and    companies whose staff and agencies use Nigerian airlines. According to  him, “the series of crashes and attendant devastating losses call for a   critical review of the aviation sector”. Reacting to the incessant crashes, Onyekakeyah (2005:65) regrets that in the aviation sector, we are reaping   sorrow and anguish by the waste of precious lives through air disasters.

 

Chikwe (2005:25) emphasizes that most of the aircraft on the fleet of private airlines were manufactured in 1968, while just a few were   manufactured in 1976, used by the countries which produce them, and  phased out after their stipulated life span. Moreover, the Western and  American countries have since legislated against the flying of old aircraft     Ore (2006:12) maintains that the nation’s airports are in a progressive state   of decay, signposted by either outdated, or inadequate facilities, and inept management. Reacting to the ADC air crash of 2006, which claimed the                 lives of all 116 passengers on board, Akintola (2006:1) points out that the              Nigerian aviation industry needs urgent overhaul.

Sequel to the chain of air crashes which occurred between 2005 and   2006 – (The Bellview Airline in which 117 persons lost their lives in 2005; Sosoliso Airlines in December 2005, involving loss of lives to the tune of 108 persons, including 60 secondary school students; Two ADC – owned Boeing 737 aircrafts which claimed the lives of 117 and 96 persons respectively), the managing director of the National Emergency Management Agency, NEMA, Captain Iyayi revealed that there are just two serviceable radar in the country, and that the others are obsolete (installed in the 70’s). Reacting to the ADC air crash of Oct. 2006, the Minister of Federal Capital Territory, Malam Nasir el-Rufai, told a foreign medium in Sokoto (Nov. 2006) that the condition of the ADC plane was “deplorable”, with “bad tyres”

After the Bellview crash of October 22nd 2005, the National Emergency Control Agency (NEMA) was unable to decode the exact location of the plane. It is unfortunate that most airlines still use the old model radio signal technically termed Beacon 121.5 rather than the modern Beacon 406.

As regards the Agency’s inability to read any signal from the Bellview airline, Fagbemi (2005:68) asserts that it was as a result of the old model radio signal which just could not be read by the facilities of the National Emergency Management Agency. According to him, the beacon might have busted before the aircraft crashed.

The NEMA satellite was unable to detect the location of the crashed aircraft because it had an old model beacon. The satellite network can only use 406 MHz for distress alert. “In Nigeria, about 99 per cent of the distress alerts are false. False alerts can be resolved quickly with 406 MHz beacons as they transmit a digital signal that can identify owner” (Fagbemi, 2005:64). The 121.5 MHz beacon used by the Bellview Airline is based on obsolete analogue technology.

In its review of the global events of 2004, the National Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2005 World Disasters Report, remarked that many of the year’s disasters could have been avoided with better information and communication.

 

Ore (2005) posits that our airports are facing deficiencies in the area of security. Describing the Nigerian Airspace, Onasanya (2005:12) points out that our airspace was blacklisted by the International Federation of Airline Pilots (IFALPA) as lacking in effective communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management facilities, services and procedure. In simple terms, there was no VHF (radio) coverage of the national airspace, the navigational and landing aids were not functional most of the time, the radar stations were broken down and air traffic control services were not provided to en-route traffic.

 

Still on the ADC crash, the “Guardian” reported that the official response to the emergency was poor and slow, and that the management of information was even worse. It went further to point out that the aviation ministry has been keeping mute about numerous recommendations made by stakeholders and committees set up by government since the Bellview incident. Stakeholders and experts have emphasized that the only way to check frequent air mishaps is maintenance, repair and overhaul of fleet by airlines.

 

On the Sosoliso crash, the Nigerian Accident Investigation Prevention Bureau (AIPB) reported that the country needs an efficient national emergency agency to carry out prompt search and rescue operations.

 

Also highlighted was the relevance of an effective weather forecasting and monitoring infrastructure, which makes for a safer airspace.

In the words of Shadare (2006:52): “Nigeria’s air safety record is appalling, as the airspace is regarded as one of the most dangerous, making nonsense of whatever reforms the government had embarked on”. According to Okon (1995:1), Nigerians should stop paying lip service to urgent services like aviation, an industry we cannot afford to operate below standards.

 

Reports of the presidential task force which was set up in 2006 to look into the decay in the aviation sector, revealed that all the airports in the country lack basic operational facilities that could make for smooth operations of modern airports. The decay in facilities was attributed to long years of neglect and corruption.

 

1.2       BRIEF HISTORY OF NCAA

The Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA) is the regulatory body of the Nigerian aviation industry. Initially, the Civil Aviation Department (CAD) of the Federal Ministry of Aviation was responsible for the management and maintenance of Nigerian Airports and other navigational facilities. However, when the Nigerian Airports Authority (NAA) was created, CAD ceased to exist. The Nigerian Airports Authority commenced operations in 1978.

 

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