1.1 Background tothe Study
Pregnancy and delivery are supposed to be a safe process when well-managed, but a number of times it involves major health risks, even to women with no pre-existing health problem. Thousands of women die all over the world from issues directly associated with pregnancy, delivery and its complications (Maya, Buntugu, Lovelace, Emmanuel, & Srofenyoh, 2015). According to World Health Organization, (2012) Sub-Sahara Africa is responsible for approximately 60% of maternal deaths with total lifetime risk as high as 1 in 39 pregnancies when compared with 1 in 2900 in Europe. Although Postpartum haemorrhage affects about 4% of all pregnancies (Combs, Murphy, & Laros, 1991), making it the leading cause of maternal death all over the world.
Recent evidence from World Health Organization, (2008) estimated that postpartum haemorrhage of all etiologies accounts for 25% of the maternal deaths worldwide. However, statistics from the same organization showed disparity in the documentation of findings as record could reach as high as 40% in South East Asia, Latin America and some countries in Africa. Postpartum haemorrhage is responsible for about 50% of maternal mortality in Guatemala and Afghanistan (Miller & Martin, 2008). Every year, a total number of 529,000 women died due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth (Ojengbede, Morhason, Galadanti, Meyer, Nsima, & Gamin, 2010). Similarly, statistics has shown that 358,000 women lose their lives due to negative outcome of pregnancy and delivery(WHO,2010).
According to Adesokan (2010), PPH is excessive bleeding from the genital tract after the birth of a baby up to 6 weeks which is in excess of 500mls or any amount sufficient enough to cause cardiovascular collapse which is dangerous to the life of the woman. According to Reynders Sentennm, Tjalma and Jacquemyn, (2006) majority of these maternal deaths occur within the first four hours after birth. They occur as a result of either lack or poor management of the stage three of labour by skilled midwives and birth attendants, most pregnant women are liable postpartum haemorrhage. Therefore midwives need to possess the knowledge and skill in third stage management of labour, recognize asses, treat excessive blood loss and prevent postpartum haemorrhage.
Postpartum haemorrhage is a killer, and also one of the obstetric complications with established and effective intervention through the use of a low technology device referred to as Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment or life wrap. NASG is a device in form of a lower bottom suit of an articulated neoprene with Velcro parts which gives lower body circumferential counter pressure that supplies blood to the vital organs of the body, thus reversing hypovolemic shock and decreasing postpartum haemorrhage. Evidence suggests that this promising technology helps overcome further damage and plays a part in sophisticated modern care units by stabilizing women whilst waiting for definitive haemorrhage therapies such as blood transfusion and surgeries.
Uterine atony is the inability of the uterine muscle to effectively contract after delivery which can be managed with the use of appropriate of uterotonic drugs like misoprostol (International Confederation of Midwives and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2007). Misoprostol is a prostaglandin based drug that has aroused the interest of significant others as an effective uterotonic agent due to its ease of administration, safety profile, cost and ease of storage. Though, studies on use of misoprostol as auterotonic agent in management of postpartum haemorrhage have been conducted in many centres (El-Refaey & Templeton, 2006).
Besides, the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria in the recent past organized workshops and training on the use of NASG for midwives and nurses in Nigeria both in the clinical setting and academia to educate them on the availability and the use of the garment in the control of PPH. However, there is paucity of literature on the appropriate application of their skills on the use of NASG in the Secondary Health Care Facilities in Ondo State. Hence, this study seeks to assess the skills of midwives on the utilization of Anti Shock Garment and administration of misoprostol in the management of postpartum hemorrhage in selected Secondary Health Facilities in Ondo State, Nigeria.