Title                                                                                                                    ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Approval                                                                                                                                 iv

Dedication                                                                                                              v

Acknowledgement                                                                                        vi

Table of Content                                                                                               vii

List of Tables                                                                                                 xi

List of Appendices                                                                                                 xii


Background to the study                                                                                                        1

Statement of the problem                                                                                                       7

Purpose of the study                                                                                                               7

Objectives of the study                                                                                     8

Research Question                                                                                                                  8

Hypothesis                                                                                                                              8

Significance of the study                                                                                                        9

Scope of the study                                                                                                                  9

Operational definition                                                                                                             10


Concept of Industrial Harmony                                                                                              11

Factors influencing industrial harmony                                                            16

Workplace communication                                                                          16

Interdisciplinary collaboration                                                                             23

Equitable remuneration                                                                             27

Theoretical review                                                                                                                   34

Empirical Review                                                                                              36

Summary of Literature Review                                                                                              40


Research design                                                                                                                      42

Area of study                                                                                                                          42

Population of study                                                                  43

Sample                                                                             43

Inclusion criteria                                                                               44

Sampling procedure                                                                                            44

Instrument for data collection                                                          44

Validity of instrument                                                                                                            45

Reliability of instrument                                                                                          45

Ethical consideration                                                                                                              45

Procedure for data collection                                                                            46

Method of data analysis                                                                                 46


Distribution of respondents by gender, discipline and years in service                                  47

Perceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration                                                           49

Scores on perceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration                                          51

Perceived influence of workplace communication on industrial harmony                            53

Discipline specific scores on perceived influence of workplace communication                   55

Perceived influence of equitable remuneration on industrial harmony                                  57

Discipline specific scores on perceived influence of equitable remuneration             59

Perceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration                                                           61

Summary of ANOVA on influence of interdisciplinary collaboration                                   62

Perceived influence of workplace communication on industrial harmony                            64

Summary of ANOVA on influence of workplace communication                                        65

Perceived influence of equitable remuneration on industrial harmony                                  67

Summary of ANOVA on influence of equitable remuneration                                              68

Summary of major findings                                                                                                    69


Determination of perceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration                               71

Assessment of perceived influence of workplace communication                                         73

Determination of influence of equitable remuneration           –           –           –           –           75

Determination of difference in interdisciplinary collaboration                                               76

Determination of difference in workplace communication                                                    77

Determination of difference in equitable remuneration                                                          78

Implication for Nursing                                                                      80

Limitation of the study                                                                                       81

Summary                                                                                                      81

Suggestion for further studies                                                                              83

Recommendations                                                                                84



                                               LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Distribution of respondents by gender, discipline and years in service .……… . . . 47

Table 2: Influence of interdisciplinary collaboration on industrial harmony    ……………..49

Table 3: Discipline specific scores on influence of interdisciplinary collaboration …………51

Table 4: Influence of workplace collaboration on industrial harmony ………………………53

Table 5: Discipline specific scores on influence of workplace communication …………….55

Table 6: Influence of equitable remuneration on industrial harmony ……………………….56

Table 7: Discipline specific scores on influence of equitable remuneration …………………58

Table 8: There is no significant difference on influence of interdisciplinary collaboration ….59

Table 9: Summary of ANOVA on influence of interdisciplinary collaboration ………………60

Table 10: There is no significant difference on influence of workplace communication …….61

Table 11: Summary of ANOVA on influence of workplace communication …………………62

Table 12: There is no significant difference on influence of equitable remuneration …………63

Table 13: Summary of ANOVA on influence of equitable remuneration ……………………..64

                                      LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Proportionate Selection of Respondents

Appendix 2: Questionnaire

Appendix 3: Letter of Introduction

Appendix 4: Ethical Clearance Certificate


This study was conceived to determine the factors influencing industrial harmony among health care professionals in UNTH, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State. The study was specifically aimed at assessing the influence of interdisciplinary collaboration, workplace communication and equitable remuneration among health care professionals on industrial harmony. The study used a descriptive survey design. Non probability purposive sampling was used to select medicine, nursing, pharmacy and medical laboratory science disciplines. The population of study was 1371, with a sample size of 300 health care professionals,consisting of eighty doctors, one hundred and ten nurses, twenty pharmacists and fourteen Medical Laboratory Scientists.A researcher-developed questionnaire was employed to collect data from the respondents. Analysis of Variance was used to test the hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that theperceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals on industrial harmony was statistically significant with the health care professionals reporting a favourable interdisciplinary collaboration (2.86 ±0.76, p= 0.0000). Theperceived influence of workplace communication among health care professionals on industrial harmony was statistically significant with the respondents reporting poor workplace communication among the health care professionals and with the management (2.31 ±0.79, p= 0.0160). The result for influence of equitable remuneration of health care professionals on industrial harmony was notstatistically significant, with the health care professionals reporting dissatisfaction with their remunerations (2.49 ±1.00, p=0.821). The result showed that there existed good interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals but also a need for improvement and a more inclusive approach. Workplace communication among health care professionals in UNTH needs improvement to promote healthy working environment. Health care professionals’ remuneration was not very satisfactory and a more equitable remuneration is needed to boost industrial harmony and help forestall industrial disharmony.







Background to the Study

Workplaces are complex systems. Within the typical healthcare organization there are many interactions between so many different types of people – colleagues, board members, patients, clients, and the general public. In a typical hospital setting, no single discipline or specialty can meet all of a patient’s needs.

Industrial harmony refers to a friendly and cooperative agreement on working relationships between employers and employees for their mutual benefit (Laden, 2012). Industrial harmony is a situation where the employees and management cooperate willingly for the company’s commercial objectives and the employees’ benefits. This creates a high level of satisfaction. Industrial harmony is an abstract concept. It is necessary but its existence is not felt in most organizations’ management, resulting in tense working environment. This is largely because most organizations believe that they are the only ones that can be wronged. They fail to acknowledge that many of their practices could compromise relations with their employees. Industrial harmony therefore, according to Puttapalli and Vuram (2012), involves the relationship between employers and employees with respect to the terms and conditions of employment in the workplace.

Industrial harmony could be achieved when workers and management of an organization work hand in hand without any friction. Even when there are differences in opinion, if agreement is achieved in an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence, industrial harmony is assured. According to Mukoro (2013), industrial harmony requires that people in management understand their responsibilities and possess the requisite training and authority to discharge them. Also, employees must understand their duties and responsibilities and be abreast with the organizational objectives and make progress towards achieving them. There must be effective interchange of information between management and employees. The author stated that employees should cooperate with trade unions in establishing effective procedures for negotiations on terms and conditions of service, and conflict resolution. Employers should ensure that they honour agreements with employees. Management maintains a communication system which secures the interchange of information and views which must be factual and objective between different levels of employees. Many organizations in Nigeria are bedeviled by many problems caused by inefficient and ineffective management styles or strained relationship between management and the staff (Osanwomi & Ugiagbe, 2013). This has led to intermittent conflicts between employers and employees. In the health care sector, these conflicts have dire consequences, resulting in loss of lives of clients whose health have been decimated by illness. Many of the conflicts may have been between employees over perceived preferential and discriminatory treatments by the employers in the multidisciplinary workplaces such as health care.

The health care delivery process involves significant interaction of the patient with multiple groups of health care practitioners having different levels of educational and occupational preparations. Managing diverse workplace relationships often requires balancing multiple demands. Organization members need to collaborate and be concerned with the well-being of all those who work to advance the mission of the organizations. Just as it is important for the staff to cooperate in order to enjoy harmonious operations, the clients of health care organizations need them to collaborate and communicate effectively for them to have the best care. A hospitalized patient for example, may need a physician to provide diagnosis and treatment plan, a nurse to administer medications, help with bathing and toileting, a phlebotomist to take blood samples; a dietician to monitor food intake, a physiotherapist to help in muscle strengthening and flexibility, a social worker to coordinate home care on discharge (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2008). If there is no collaboration between these disciplines, the patient will be denied comprehensive and efficient management.

Collaboration in health care is health care professionals undertaking complementary roles and cooperatively working together, sharing responsibilities for problem-solving and making decisions to fashion out and execute plans for patient care. Interdisciplinary collaboration between healthcare professionals is described as working together, sharing in decision-making around health and social issues, to formulate and carry out plans for patient care and solving patients’ problems (Bridge, Davidson, Odegard, Maki, &Tomkowiak, 2011). Interdisciplinary collaboration includes the interactions, relations, cohesion, communication, and coordination between healthcare professionals (Hassankaneh, 2013). Positive outcomes occur when there is effective communication and collaboration among health care professionals. The absence of interdisciplinary collaboration may result in higher possibility of errors and omissions in patient care.  In any organization where collaboration is non-existent, abusive and disruptive behaviours are present, burnout, lowered job satisfaction and decision to leave the profession have been reported (Sirota, 2007).

Webster’s Dictionary defines communication as “the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. Communication is vital to any social system as it creates an environment of trust, harmony and proficiency (Mukoro, 2013). Workplace communication is necessary for efficiency, harmony, raised morale and increased productivity. It is important for employers of labour to communicate with the employees to help them understand what duties they are to perform and how to go about them, what rules to obey, why management requires certain actions or has taken certain actions, what challenges or prospects the employer is facing and why workers’ demand may not be realized.

There must be clear communication of critical information among team members to achieve effective clinical care. The communication of simple orders, if inappropriately made or misunderstood, poorly interpreted or ignored, may generate tension. When health care professionals fail to communicate effectively, patient safety is at risk (Joint Commission Resources, 2005). Lack of communication creates situations where medical errors can occur (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2008). This may lead to frustration; erode trust and respect, thereby creating more tension that increases the likelihood of errors and mistakes. The patient would, most likely, be the victim of this breakdown in communication. Improving health care professionals’ communication can improve the quality of professional services to the patients (Azimi, Ashktorab, Bagheri, & Bagherzadeh, 2011).





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