Background to the Study

The family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result acquires education and socialization from parents and other significant persons both in and outside the family circle. Agulaina (2000) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, a home, in this context is a built or constructed structure that houses one or two or more members of the family. An intact home is the one that consists of the father, mother and children without separation, divorce, death of one or both parents, desertion or single parenthood; while on the other hand, broken home is the one that is affected by divorce, separation, death of one or both of the parents, desertion or single-parenthood.

According to Fraser (2004), psychological home condition arise mainly from illegitimacy of the children; the label of the adopted child, broken homes, divorce, separation and parental deprivation are likely to cause poor or abnormal adjustment. Life in a broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parents. Such families are faced with the challenges of inadequate resources, social, academic and emotional problems as noted by Schultz (2006). Rochlkepartain (2013) is of the opinion that the family structure plays a great role on children’s adjustments. Levine (2001), states that the parents are probably the actor with the dearest undimensional interest in high level of their children’s adjustment. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show that marital instability brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation, frustration and depression as noted by Levin (2001). Obviously, these manifestations act negatively on the child’s adjustment to social and economic aspect of life.

The child’s home and his family offer the best upbringing, as they serve as teachers. The parents lay the foundation for the desired social and economic wellbeing of the child. The training received from home is of great importance in his personality formation, in social and economic achievement. It can also be observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or unstable), the social and economic status of the family in the community and many other conditions can influence the child’s adjustments to his economic and social life as a secondary school student. Abdulganiyu (1997) added that research have also shown how children differ in various ways as a result of factors in their home background such as social and economic status, parental attitude to the child’s needs and other child-rearing practices (factors mentioned

earlier in broken/unstable homes). These home background variables are also found to be positively related to children’s social and economic adjustments as they need care and love which is absent in broken homes and invariably resulting to abnormal adjustments. Poor adjustments occur when an individual is unable to adapt or cope with a particular stress or a major life event as mentioned by Abdulganiyu (1997). They have symptoms similar to people with depression; loss of interest, feeling of hopelessness and crying. This disorder is caused by an outside stress and generally resolves once the individual is able to adapt to these situations (Patricia, 2009).

Similarly, Giwa (1997) have investigated the factors within student’s home background on family that affect their social and economic adjustments such as the family size, birth order, multi-parity , parental attitude, child-rearing practices, parental absence or presence, polygamy and poverty. This is so because, children’s social and economic needs to be balanced with psychological , emotional and intellectual needs such as love , security, new experiences , needs for praise and recognition and the need for responsibility. Most of these needs may not be adequately offered in broken homes, which in turn, influence their normal adjustment to social and economic status in their schools. The extent to which these needs are met during formative years is the extent to which they enter school well-equipped or ready to deal with the social aspect of school life.

Statement of the Problem

The history of broken homes in Katsina city dates back to the traditional days when there were no legally constituted courts to settle the disputes among couples. Thus differences were taken to the council of elders in the extended family system. The woman stressed her grievance and the husband is called upon by the eldest person in the family or village head for amicable settlement. In a situation where the unwanted behavior continued then the woman could report grievances to her parents. The parents of the woman or herself, has the sole responsibility to seek for divorce or separation. During these olden days, broken homes were not pronounced and where there were few of such cases it was considered as taboo; as such the rates of broken homes was minimal in the study area. But in present modern age, particularly in Nigeria, where women are expected to shoulder effectively domestic responsibilities, but due engagement in place of work, which prevent them from discharging their responsibilities, in most case tend to create conflict that may lead to broken homes.

It is worthy to note that majority of the families in Katsina city predominantly operate polygamous family system. This has a lot of implications to the stability of the marriage of many couples in the study area. For instance, a man who is not economically viable to maintain one wife but yet gets married to two or more wives through parental and peer group influence may definitely not be able to cater for the family.

However, there is a global awareness on the importance of home environment and parental care on pupils‟ academic performance. The family being the most important

 social unit that provides security, socio-economic and psychological services to its members (children inclusive) is prone to threat due to rising cases of broken homes such as divorce, separation, or death of a parent. Hence, schools are likely to have more pupils whose parents have been divorced, dead or separated now more than ever before. The rate of broken homes as a result of collapse marriage is becoming alarming, thus increasing number of children from broken homes day in, day out. The home is meant to be a place filled with joy, happiness with lots of guaranteed security and comfort but it is rather pitiful that average home today neglects its primary functions thereby causing a lots of psychological challenge in the mind of the school pupils.

The emotional and social stress of broken homes may cause hardship, such as inability to resume classes as at when due, inability to purchase necessary learning materials, nonpayment of dues and levies, lack guidance and counselling, monitoring and supervision, insecurity, lack of freedom from oppression, denial of early education. The presence of a broken home condition may adversely affect pupil`s concentration on their studies and regular attendance in school, it may also lead to exams failures and also impede academic performance as the pupil is unable to take advantage of learning opportunities at school and at home, for these pupils to be in school with various psychological home conditions will no doubt be in disequilibrium state of mind. It is against this background, the researcher Personality adjustment of children from broken home. Case study in katsina city Objectives of the Study

The study sets out to achieve the following objectives,

Research questions

The following research questions are asked to guide the study:

Research hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance;

Significance of the Study

The essence of this research work could be seen from its scope. The study had attempted to provide empirical research findings on the influence of broken home on pupil academic performance. The findings of this study may led to a possible reduction in this social ill (broken home) act in the society. The result of the study will complement government effort in reducing rate of broken home among families. Counsellors, Teachers, educational administrators, policy makers, curriculum developers and other stakeholders will find this work indispensable. The study had also contributed to the body of knowledge on the influence of the home environment on academic performance. In addition, it would serve as a measure to the problem of poor academic performance amongst primary school pupils in the country. It will also attract future researchers in a similar field in order to give a better understanding of the problem at hand. The findings of this study will uplift the quality of education in the following ways.

Curriculum planning; Curriculum Planners will find it handy and would benefit them by knowing that the general and rigid curriculum that is one – size – fits- all would no longer meet the needs of every learners. The study has provided valid information to curriculum planners on learners from broken homes and it will be employed in simplify existing curriculum.

Counsellors; the study has provided the school guidance counsellors with vital information that will help them to guide their clients from broken homes, as well as educational administrators and regulators. It will also serve as a reference material for further studies in the field. The findings of this study serve as useful information that will be used for theory formation in marital counseling.

Students; The study provide students with needed information on home background and academic performance, and this will go a long way to facilitate his/her preparation to excel in academic pursuit and life in general (economically, physically/spiritually, socially, as well as morally). Religious Institutions; the study also provide religious leaders with needed information

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