PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILER BIRDS TO ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH ALOE VERA AND NEEM LEAVE EXTRACTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification- – – – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – iii
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – v
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – ix
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of problem – – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Justification of the study. – – – – – – – – 4
1.4. Objectives of the study – – – – – – – – 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATUER REVIEW
2.1 Broiler breeders and their management – – – – – – 5
2.2 Nutrient requirement of poultry – – – – – – – 8
2.3 Feed intake of broiler birds. – – – – – – – 12
2.4 Energy requirement of chickens – – — – – – – 12
2.5 Protein and amino acid requirements of chickens – – – – 13
2.6 Response trends of chickens to differing feed energy and protein levels – – 16
2.7 Need of vitamin supplements – – – – – – – 19
2.7.1 Role of vitamin – – – – – – – – – 20
2.8 Vitamin requirements of broilers – – – – – – – 21
2.9 Water-related factors in broiler production – – – – – 27
2.10 Poultry diseases: causes, symptoms and treatment – – – – 31
2.11 Alternative ingredients in poultry feed – – – – – – 34
2.12 Use of herbs in poultry production. – – – – – – 35
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Location and Duration of the Study – – – – – – 36
3.2 Preparation of Extracts – – – – – – – – 36
3.2.1 Preparation of aloe vera gel Extract – – – – – – 36
3.2.2 Preparation of neem leaf extract – – – – – – 36

3.3 Experiment 1: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral
supplementation with aloe vera gel extract – – – – – 37

3.3.1 Experimental birds and management – – – – – – 37

3.3.2 Haematology and serum analyses – – – – – – 38
3.3.3 Apparent nutrient retention determination – – – – – 38
3.3.4 Carcass and organ evaluation – – – – – – – 38
3.4 Experiment 2: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral
supplementation with neem leaf extract – – – – – – 39

3.4.1 Experimental birds and management – – – – – – 39
3.5 Parameters measured and parameters determined – – – – 39
3.6 Experimental design – – – – – – – – 39
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Experiment 1: Physiological response of broiler birds to
oral supplementation with aloe vera gel extract – – – – – 41

4.1.1 Proximate composition of aloe vera gel extract – – – – – 41
4.1.2 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on growth performance
of starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 41

4.1.3 Effect of aqueous aloe vera gel extract on haematological indices
of starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 42

4.1.4 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extracts on growth performance
of finisher broiler birds: – – – – – – – – 43
4.1.5 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extracts on apparent nutrient
retention finisher broiler birds – – – – – – – 45
4.1.6 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on Serum biochemistry
indices of finisher broiler birds. – – – – – – 47
4.1.7a Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and organ weights
of broiler finishers – – – – – – – – 48
4.1.7b Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass
and relative organ weights of broiler finishers – – – – – 51
4.2 Experiment 2: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral
supplementation with neem leaf extracts. – – – – – – 53

4.2.1 Proximate composition of neem leaf extracts – – – – – 53
4.2.2 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of starter broiler birds – 54
4.2.3 Effect of neem leaf extracts on haematological indices of starter broiler birds – 55
4.2.4 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of finisher broiler birds:-56
4.2.5 Effects of neem leaf extract on apparent nutrient retention finisher broiler birds.- 58
4.2.6 Effects of neem leaf extract on Serum biochemistry indices of finisher
broiler birds. – – – – – – – – – – 60
4.2.7a Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and organ weights of broiler finishers 61
4.2.7b Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and relative organ weights of
broiler finishers – – – – – – – – 65
4.3 Experiment 1: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral
supplementation with aloe vera gel extract – – – – – – 69

4.3.1 Proximate composition of aloe vera gel extract. – – – – 69
4.3.2 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on growth performance
of starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 70

4.3.3 Effect of aqueous aloe vera gel extract on haematological indices
of starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 70
4.3.4 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extracts on growth performance – – – 71
of finisher broiler birds – – – – – – – – 72
4.3.5 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extracts on apparent nutrient
retention finisher broiler birds – – – – – – – 73
4.3.6 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on Serum biochemistry
indices of finisher broiler birds. — – – – – – 74
4.3.7 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and (relative)
organ weights of broiler finishers – – – – – – 75
4.4 Experiment 2: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral supplementation
with neem leaf extract – – – — – — – – 75
4.4.1 Proximate composition of neem leaf extracts – – – – – 75
4.4.2 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of starter broiler birds – 76
4.4.3 Effect of neem leaf extracts on haematological indices of starter broiler birds.- 77
4.4.4 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of finisher broiler birds: 77
4.4.5 Effects of neem leaf extract on apparent nutrient retention finisher broiler birds.- 77
4.4.6 Effects of neem leaf extract on Serum biochemistry indices of finisher broiler birds.78
4.4.7 Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and (relative) organ
weights of broiler finishers.- – – – – – – – -80
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 82
5.2 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION – – – – 83
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – 84
APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Examples of broiler diets – – – – – – – 11
Table 2: Amino acid requirements (g kg-1 feed) at different ages of broiler chickens- 15
Table 3: Role of vitamins – – – – – – – – 20

Table 4: NRC (1994); BIS (1992) and Leeson & Summers Recommendations
(Starter Rations) (Values per Kg of Feed) – – – – – 22

Table 5: Recommendations by different Breeders for Broilers. (Starter Rations)
(Values per Kg of feed) – – – – – – – – 23
Table 6: Recommendations by different Vitamin manufacturers for Broilers
(Values Per kg of feed) – – – – – – – – 24
Table 7: Low 25%, Average, High 25% and High 5% Vitamin premixes
for commercial Broiler Markets (Values per Kg of feed) – – – 25
Table 8: Calculated Compoition of vital feed. – – – – – 37
Table 9: Proximate composition of aloe vera gel extract – – – – 41
Table 10: Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on growth performance of
starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 41
Table 11: Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on haematological indices of
starter broiler birds – – – – – – – – 42
Table 12: Effect of aqueous alovera gel extracts on growth performance
of finisher broiler birds: – – – – – – – 44
Table 13 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extracts on apparent nutrient retention
finisher broiler birds. – – – – – – – – 46
Table 14: Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on Serum biochemistry
indices of finisher broiler birds. – – – – – – 47
Table 15: Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and organ
weights of broiler finishers – – – – – – – 49
Table 16: Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and relative
organ weights of broiler finishers. – – – – – – 51
Table 17: Proximate composition of neem leaf extracts – – – – 54
Table 18: Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of starter broiler birds: 54
Table 19: .Effects of neem leaf extracts on Heamatological indices of starter broiler birds. 55
Table 20: Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of finisher broiler birds: 57
Table 21: Effects of neem leaf extract on apparent nutrient retention of finisher
broiler birds.- – – – – – – – – – 59
Table 22: .Effects of neem leaf extracts on Serum biochemical indices
of broiler finishers. – – – – – – – – – 60
Table 23: Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and organ weights of broiler finishers 62
Table 24: Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and relative organ
weights of broiler finishers. – – – – – – – 66

ABSTRACT
Two hundred and forty 14-day old broiler birds were used in a study conducted to investigate the physiological response of boiler birds to oral supplementation with aloe vera gel and neem leaf extracts. In experiment one, one hundred and twenty 14- day old broilers were used to assess the physiological response of the broiler birds to oral supplementation with alovera gel extract, while in experiment two, one hundred and twenty 14- day old broilers were used to assess the physiological response of the broiler birds to oral supplementation with neem leaf extract. The birds of both sexes were randomly allotted into five treatment groups of 24 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) in both experiments. Treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 received ordinary water, Vitaltye, 10, 20, and 30% of each of the two extracts, respectively. Results obtained in experiment one showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in final body weight, feed conversion ratio, average cost/kg gain and mortality rate. Birds on T4(20%AVGE) had the lowest feed conversion ratio(3.09) and lower average cost of feed per kg gain(N308.67) than others with feed conversion ratio [ T1(3.36), T2(3.46),T3(3.21) and T5(3.18), and average cost of feed per kg gain [T1((N336.33), T2(N345.67), T5(N317.66), respectively. There were significant (p<0.05)differences among treatments in packed cell volume, red blood cells, hetrophil, lymphocyte, moncyte, eosnoohil, and basophil. There were also significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free ether retained; significant differences existed among treatments in total protein, albumin globulin, glucose, creatine, cholesterol and calcium. Live body weight, dressed weight (%LW), head, gizzard, empty gizzard, shank, heart, liver, kidney, abdominal fat, lungs, and large intestine were significantly affected by treatments. However, there were no significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, daily water intake, protein efficiency ratio, white blood cell, dry matter retained, dressed weight(kg), and small intestines. Birds that received neem leaf extract (T4 and T5) showed progressive increase in final body weight (3.42kg and 3.70kg, respectively) compared to the control (3.14kg) and T2 [(vitalyte) (3.39kg)]. Birds on T5(30%NLE) had the lowest feed conversion ratio(2.85) and lower average cost of feed per kg gain(N284.67) than others which had feed conversion ratio of 3.48 (T1), 3.21 (T2), 3.29 (T3) and 3.15 (T4), and average cost of feed per kg gain as follows:T1(N347.67), T2(321.00), and T4(N315.33). There were significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in packed cell volume, red blood cells, hetrophil, lymphocyte, moncyte, eosnoohil, and basophil. Significant differences (p<0.05) also existed between treatments in the apparent retentions of crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free ether, and in total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol and calcium. There were also significant (p<0.05)differences among treatments in live weight, dressed weight(%LW), head, gizzard, empty gizzard, shank, heart, liver, kidney, abdominal fat, lungs, large intestine and small intestine. However, there were no significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, total water intake, dry matter retained, and serum creatine. Results showed that the levels of aloe vera gel and neem leaf extracts used in the present study enhanced the growth performance of broiler birds, especially at 20% and 30% inclusions.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Poultry is on the fastest means to achieving appreciable improvement in the nutritional standard of the populace because of its short generation interval, quick turnover rate and relatively low capital investment (Smith, 2001; Ani and Okeke, 2011)
Nutrition is the most important consideration in any livestock enterprise. Its survival is dependent on the availability of feedstuffs, which are mainly components of human food. The unavailability of grains and the high cost of imported ingredients have made the price of commercial animal feed to increase over 300%. These problems remain the most important constraints to the expansion of commercial poultry production in Nigeria.

The high cost of conventional feedstuff has already sent a lot of livestock farmers out of business, thus leading to reduction in overall animal protein production and availability for humans dietary’s need. The provision of feed alone has been reported to account for 60-80% of total cost of livestock production in developing countries alone (Igboeli, 2000; Esonu, 2006). In view of this, there is increased interest by poultry farmers on the search for non conventional feed ingredients that could be cheaper such as leaf and seed meals of ethno medicinal plants (Okoli et al., 2001, 2002). The use of various plant extracts in broiler production has been documented (Essien et al; 2007; Nworgu et al 2007; Galib and Noor, 2010). One way is to look for alternative source of feed supplement that is not only cheap and could boost the growth of chickens but organic and readily available.
In an effort to develop new feedstuff for animal feeding, a number of researchers have investigated the proximate composition of neem seed cake (Bawa et al., 2006; Uko and Kamalu, 2001), leaf meal (Oforjindu, 2006; Esonu et al., 2005, 2006; Ogbuewu et al., 2010a, b) and its use as feedstuff in poultry (Esonu et al., 2005; Oforjindu, 2006; Uko and Kamalu, 2007) and rabbits (Sokunbi and Egbunike, 2000a; Ogbuewu, 2008). Result of proximate analysis of neem showed that of had 92.42% dry matter, 7.58% moisture, 20.68% crude protein, 16.60% crude fibre, 4.13% ether extract, 7.10% ash and 43.91% nitrogen free extract (Esonu et al., 2005; Oforjindu, 2006; Ogbuewu, 2008).

 

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