THE POLITICS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF OYO STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content Page
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Appendices xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
1.9 Chapter Outlay of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Conceptual Model 10
2.1.1 Solid Wastes 10
2.1.2 Health Implication of Solid Wastes 14
2.2 The Environment 15
2.3 Politics 19
2.4 Solid Waste Management 30
2.5 Urbanization and Solid Waste Management 56
2.6 Solid waste management strategy of other nations – UK, US and India 58
Content Page
2.7 Oyo State 61
2.7.1 Solid waste challenges/management issues in Oyo state 63
2.7.2 Solid waste generation rates in Oyo state 64
2.8 Theoretical Framework 65
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction ` 67
3.1 Research Design 67
3.2 Population 67
3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 70
3.4 Methods of Data collection 71
3.5 Sources of Data 71
3.6 Research Instrument 72
3.7 Validity and Reliability of research instrument 73
3.8 Method of Data analysis 74
3.9 Ethical Consideration 74
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction 76
4.1 Frequency Distribution of Respondents on Demographic Variable 76
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions and Testing of the Hypotheses 78
4.3 Discussion of the findings on reasons why Local Governments in Oyo
State are not able to effectively manage Solid Waste 80
4.4 Testing of the Hypotheses 90
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 94
5.2 Conclusion 94
5.3 Recommendations 95
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 99
Content Page
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research 99
REFERENCES 96
APPENDICES 110

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1: Table showing Estimated and projected
Solid waste generated in some cities in Nigeria 12
2.2: Table showing some ways that solid wastes can be
recycled and reused 59
2.3: Local governments in Oyo State and their headquarters 68
3.1: Local governments in Oyo state, their headquarters, selected
samples and sample sizes 74
3.5 Pilot Study (Reliability Study) 80
4.1.1: Distribution of the respondents by age 82
4.1.2: Distribution of the respondents by educational qualification 83
4.1.3: Distribution of the respondents by gender 83
4.1.4: Distribution of the respondents by profession 83
4.2.1: Frequency distribution on reasons why local governments
in Oyo state are not able to effectively manage solid waste 85
4.2.2: Frequency distribution of social, economic, political and
cultural factors affecting solid waste management in Oyo state 87
4.2.3: Different ways by which solid waste management have been
politicised in Oyo state 90
4.2.4: What are the effects of politicization of solid waste management
on the residents of Oyo state 92
4.2.5: Ways by which solid waste management become
effective in Oyo state 94
4.2.6: Relative effect of each of the independent variables (Economic
factor, social factor, political factor and cultural factor) on the
ineffectivenessof the Local Governments to manage Solid Waste 97
4.2.7 The joint contribution of the independent variables
(Economic factor, Poitical factor and Cultural Factor) on the
Effectsof Politicisation of Solid Waste 99

Table Page
4.2.8: Relationship between Politicisation and Ineffectiveness
of Local government to manage solid waste 100
4.2.9: There will be no significant relationship between
Politicisation of Solid Waste Management and Ineffectiveness of
Local Government to manage solid waste 100

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix Page
1 Questionnaire 115
2 Informed Consent Form 118
3 Reliability test of the Study 119

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the Study
Human’s existence is highly connected to the environment and the importance of the environment cannot be overemphasised. The environment has created a comfortable habitat for man through science, technology, religion and politics. Albeit the environment is a pre-requisite for good and sound health, ignorance of humans to laws of nature and over-exploitation of natural resources have negatively impacted on the environment. Factors such as overpopulation, industrialisation, urbanisation, citizens’ life-style, rural-urban migration, globalization, social development, unchecked technological advancement, resources exploitation, intensive agriculture and lack of adherence to environmental regulations have further aggravated the problems of the environment (Ross, 2012).
One of the dreadful consequences of population growth and urbanisation is the problem of solid waste management. This is because, as population increases, so does the unhealthy by-products, which are in form of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes resulting from human’s activities. The issue of solid waste management is a global concern and many nations, especially developing nations are struggling to find permanent solution to the problem inherent in solid wastes. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, about 178 governments converged together and agreed that a more sustainable solid waste management was needed in both developed and developing nations. The discussion centred on looking for ways to minimise wastes, maximise reuse, recycling and promote sound environment with ability to have a proper disposal and treatment system of solid wastes in all nations of the world. Although many nations are making incredible efforts towards achieving a proper solid waste management system and practice, not much has been achieved in many developing nations even twenty four years after the conference. Solid waste management still remains a significant environmental challenge in many places in developing countries and especially in Nigeria. In many parts of Nigeria, wastes are still disposed in undesignated areas, open places, gutters, rivers, sometimes on road medians causing environmental and public health problems (Bhatia, 2013).
Various governments of the world, particularly developing countries are finding it extremely difficult to have an effective solid waste management. This is because so much garbage is still lying uncollected in the streets causing inconveniences and environmental pollution resulting in serious health risk. Many nations are beginning to realise that the factors responsible for the low performance of solid waste management are social, economic, political, technological and cultural. An important factor which has been neglected in the issue of solid waste management is political will and support from the three tiers of government.

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