PROFESSIONAL IMAGE AS CORRELATE OF JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION & MANAGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                   v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                               x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                                              1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                              8

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                     10

Significance of the Study                                                                                              10

Research Questions                                                                                                        12

Hypotheses                                                                                                                    12

Scope of the Study                                                                                                        13


 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                       15

Profession                                                                                                                      15

Teaching Profession                                                                                                       20

Business Studies                                                                                                            22

Professional Image                                                                                                         24

Business Studies Teachers Personal Welfare                                                                 26

Teachers Teaching Activities                                                                                         28

Teachers Working Conditions                                                                                       29

Teachers Career Growth                                                                                                31

Teachers Human Relations                                                                                            33

Concept of Job Satisfaction                                                                                           34

Schema                                                                                                                           37\

 

Theoretical Framework                                                                                                        38

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory                                                                            38

Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory                                                                        40

Related Empirical Studies                                                                                                    41

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                                       47

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Design of the Study                                                                                                       49

Area of the Study                                                                                                          49

Population for the Study                                                                                               50

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                 50

Instruments for Data Collection                                                                                    51

Validation of the Instruments                                                                                        51

Reliability of the Instruments                                                                                        52

Method of Data Collection                                                                                            52

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                              52

 

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Presentation of Data

Research Question One                                                                                                 53

Hypothesis One                                                                                                             54

Research Question Two                                                                                                 54

Hypothesis Two                                                                                                             55

Research Question Three                                                                                               56

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                           57

Research Question Four                                                                                                 58

Hypothesis Four                                                                                                             58

Research Question Five                                                                                                 59

Hypothesis Five                                                                                                             60

Findings of the Study                                                                                                            61

Discussion of Findings                                                                                                          62 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Re-statement of the Problem                                                                                                  67

Summary of the Procedure Used                                                                                            68

Major Findings of the Study                                                                                                  69

Implications of the Findings                                                                                                   70

Conclusion                                                                                                                              71

Recommendations                                                                                                                  73

Limitations of the Study                                                                                                         74

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                             74

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    75

APPENDICES

A: Population of Teachers and Number of Schools in the State                                            81

B: Sample Techniques for Population of the Study                                                               82

C: Table for Sample Size Distribution                                                                                    83

D: Table Confirming Cohen, et al.’s Formula of 33% as Sample Size                                   84

E: Some Possible Applications in Teachers Work Environment                                            85

F: Evidence of Validation                                                                                                      86

G: Reliability Test                                                                                                                  91

H: Result of SPSS Output                                                                                                      103

  

LIST OF TABLES

1:  Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Business Studies Teachers’

Personal Welfare and their Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                 53

 

2: Regression Analysis of Teachers’ of Business Studies in Urban Area and

Teachers’ of Business Studies in Rural Area on Personal Welfare and Job

Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                                                                     54

 

3: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Teaching Activities of Business

Studies Teachers’ and their Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                55

 

4: Regression Analysis of Male and Female Teachers’ of Business Studies on their

Teaching Activities and Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                      55

 

5: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Teachers’ Working Conditions

of Business Studies Teachers’ and their Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools             56

6: Regression Analysis of Single and Married Teachers’ of Business Studies on their

Conditions of Work and Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                    57

 

7: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Career Opportunities of Business

Studies Teachers’ and their Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                58

 

8: Regression Analysis of Highly and Less Experienced Teachers’ of Business Studies on

Career Opportunities and Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                   59

 

9: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Interpersonal Relations of Business

Studies Teachers’ and their Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                                59

 

10: Regression Analysis of Teachers’ of Business Studies with Degree and NCE Certificate

on the Human Relations and Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools                            60 

LIST OF FIGURES

1: Conceptual schema developed by the researcher, (2017)                                         37

2:  Diagrammatic representation of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

Adopted from Maslow’s Need Hierarchy (1970)                                                                         39

3   Diagrammatical representation of Frederick Herzberg Two- Factor Theory

Adapted from Frederick Herzberg Two- Factor Theory (1959)                                         41

ABSTRACT

The study investigated Professional Image as a Correlate of Job Satisfaction of Teachers of Business Studies in Public Secondary Schools in Enugu State, Nigeria. Five research questions were answered and five null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 746 teachers of Business Studies in the six education zones of Enugu State.  The sample size for this study was 244 teachers of Business Studies Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study. Correlation research design was used to generate data for the study. The instrument used for data collection was bi-polar questionnaire to elicit information for the study. The instrument was face validated by three experts, all from Department of Business Education, Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. To determine the reliability of the instrument, a trial test was conducted on 20 teachers of Business Studies in Anambra State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the items of instrument, and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.78 for Teachers Professional Image and 0.79 for Teachers Job Satisfaction. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher with the help of six research assistance one from each education zone in Enugu State. The returned copies were consequently used for data analysis. The data collected for the study were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment for the research questions and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study concludes that irrespective of location, gender, sex, experience and qualification, the salary of business studies teachers in public secondary schools in Enugu State should be enhanced so as to increase their level of attitudes towards their job. The study recommended that the Enugu State Ministry of Education should work towards the remuneration and prompt promotion of teachers. Also recommended was that Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) should work towards ensuring that teaching is professionalized and as competitive as other professions and among others. The study therefore, suggested that the same studies should be carried out in the areas of Private Secondary Schools in Enugu State, while similar studies should be carried out in Adamawa State, Abia State and Benue State respectively.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Business Studies teachers are in regular interaction with students in secondary schools during teaching and learning process. The general perception of the public is that these teachers are dissatisfied with the condition of service in the teaching profession. This may be as a result of a variety of factors such as level of payment, promotion system, quality of working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself and tasks in the job. Teachers of Business Studies are the stronghold of the subject and it is believed that they perform better when promotions, entitlements and allowances are provided promptly by the employer leading to job satisfaction for the profession.

Profession refers to an occupation with trained personnel in specific discipline. Morrish (2000) defined profession as a desirable occupation with an implication of intellectual training and mental expertise. A profession according to Taylor, Gerald and Robbet (2005), refers to competent individuals that render essential services to the society based on their level of training. The authors further reported that a profession is any prestige holding occupation that renders an essential social service with a systematic body of knowledge, requiring long academic and practical training. In the view of the authors, those in the profession enjoys high degree of autonomy and enforced conditions of service, possess a code of conduct prescribed by members and for themselves governed by a representative organization as well as makes provision for development. A profession can be defined as an occupation that requires some specialized training and some sort of certification, and it is self-regulating, as well as having some standard of behaviour for members (Ogunlade, 2007). In the context of this study, a profession refers to a paid occupation that requires prolonged training, for certification with recognized and positive social status such as teaching profession.

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