TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                   v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                1

Background to the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           4

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  5

Significance of the Study                                                                                           5

Research Questions                                                                                                     6

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 7

Scope of the Study                                                                                                    7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                  Conceptual Framework                                                                                                8

Adolescence Stages                                                                                                     8

Characteristics and Behaviours of Adolescents                                                          20

Challenges of Adolescence                                                                                          32

Sex Education for Adolescents                                                                                   38

Sex education Needs                                                                                                   40

           Theoretical Framework                                                                                             49

Social Learning Theory                                                                                                49

Need Theory                                                                                                                50

           Related Empirical Studies                                                                                         51

           Summary of Literature Review                                                                                55

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                         57

Design of the Study                                                                                                    57

Area of the Study                                                                                                       57

Population of the Study                                                                                              57

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                              58

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   58

Validity of the Instrument                                                                                         58

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       59

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         59

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           59


Research Question One                                                                                              60

Research Question Two                                                                                              63

Research Question Three                                                                                            65

Research Question Four                                                                                              67

Research Question Five                                                                                              68

Hypothesis One                                                                                                          70

Hypothesis Two                                                                                                          72

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                        73

Hypothesis Four                                                                                                          75

Hypothesis Five                                                                                                          76

Summary of the Findings                                                                                           76

Discussion on Findings                                                                                               81

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                                          RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                                     88

Re-Statement of the Problem                                                                                     88

Summary of Procedure Used                                                                                      89

Major summary of the findings                                                                                  89

Conclusion                                                                                                                  91

Implications of the study                                                                                            91

Recommendations                                                                                                      91

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                 92

REFERENCES                                                                                                                     93


Appendix A:   Letter to the Respondents                                                                              108

Appendix B:   Questionnaire                                                                                                  109

Appendix C: Sample Size                                                                                                      113

Appendix D: Reliability Coefficient                                                                                      114

Tables                                                                                                                                     Page  

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation Ratings of Adolescents, Teachers and Parents

Sex Related Challenges (Body Changes, Emotional Changes and Relationships

of Adolescents in Junior Secondary Schools                                                              61

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation Ratings by Teachers and Adolescents on

Sex Education Knowledge Needed By Adolescents to Cope with their

Sex Related Challenges                                                                                              64

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation Ratings by Parents, Teachers and Adolescents

on Sex Education Attitudes Required By Adolescents to Cope with their Sex

Related Challenges                                                                                                     66

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation Ratings by Parents, Adolescent and Teachers on

Sex Education Skills Required by Adolescents to Cope with their Sex Related

Challenges                                                                                                                   67

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation Ratings by Parents Teachers and Adolescents

on the Ways of Teaching Sex Education Needs to Adolescents in Junior

Secondary Schools of Anambra State                                                                         69


  1. T-Test Analysis of Mean Responses of Teachers and Adolescents on the Sex

Related Challenges of Adolescents in Upper Basic Schools                                         70


  1. T-Test Analysis of Mean Responses of Teachers and Adolescents on the Sex

Education Knowledge Needed by Adolescents to Cope with their Sex Related

Challenges                                                                                                                   72

  1. T-Test Analysis of Mean Responses of Teachers and Parents on the

Sex Education Attitudes Required by Adolescents to Cope with their Sex

Related Challenges                                                                                                     74

  1. T-Test Analysis of Mean Responses of Teachers and Adolescents on the Sex

Education Skills Required by Adolescents to Cope with their Sex Related

Challenges                                                                                                                   75

  1. T-Test Analysis of Mean Responses of Teachers and Parents on Different

Ways of Teaching Sex Education Needs of Adolescents                                          76


This study evolved the sex education needs of adolescents in secondary school of Anambra state.  Specifically, the study determined the sex related challenges (body changes, emotional changes and relationship with the opposite sex) of adolescents in secondary schools in Anambra State, the sex education knowledge needed by adolescents to cope with the sex related challenges, the sex education attitude required by adolescents to cope with the sex related challenges, the sex education skills needed by adolescents to cope with the sex related challenges, different ways of teaching sex education needs to adolescents in Anambra state.  Five research questions and five null hypotheses guided the study at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 93,060 respondents, these included 81,020 adolescents, 4,138 teachers and 7,902 parents. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 300 adolescents, 43 parents, and 40 teachers as sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 81- item structured questionnaire. The instrument was subjected to face validation by three experts. To obtain the reliability of the instrument, 20 copies of the questionnaire were trial tested on 20 similar respondents from Enugu State.  Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument with overall reliability index of 0.76. Data collected were analyzed by the rating scale of Agreed (A), Strongly Agreed (SA), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD) using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed  that the respondents agreed on 10 physical body changes  related challenges, 10 emotional changes related challenges and 11 relationship with the opposite sex related challenges,  making all the sex related challenges to  be 31items. The respondents also agreed on 14 sex education knowledge of adolescents in secondary schools, the attitudes needed are eleven. 11 skills required by adolescent to cope with their sex related challenges and 10 different ways of teaching sex education to adolescent were agreed by adolescents and teachers. Based on the findings, it was concluded that, the sex related challenges (body changes, emotional changes and relationships) of adolescents in junior secondary school, sex education knowledge, sex education attitudes, skills and ways of teaching sex education to adolescents evolves the sex education needs of adolescents in secondary schools.  Sex education knowledge, attitudes, skills and ways of teaching sex education are ways sex education needs of adolescents could be met. It was recommended that, schools should consider participating in the development and implementation of sexuality education curricula for schools to decrease the rates of unsafe adolescent sexual behavior and adverse outcomes.



Background to the Study

            Adolescence is the period in life of an individual between childhood and adulthood. The word adolescence is derived from a Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow” Adolescents are neither a child nor an adult between the age range of 10 – 19 years (WHO, 2009).  Such a person normally experiences various physical and psychological changes and challenges including those relating to sexuality.  The adolescent, therefore needs to be appropriately informed on issues relating to sex through relevant educational opportunities.  Such sex educational competencies can be provided through Home Economics education that should be able to equip adolescents with competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) in sex education to handle challenges relating to sexuality and be able to develop their potentials to the fullest. Adolescence encompasses different stages of physical, sex and mental development of an individual and is bewildered with varied stresses which result from distinct developmental changes in life (Burt, 2010).

Adolescents is a male or female that go through developmental transition from childhood to adulthood and it involves a number of biological, cognitive and socio emotional changes. Biological changes involve physical changes in the body, growth spurt, hormonal changes and sexual maturation that come with puberty. Cognitive changes involve individual thinking and intelligence that increases in abstract, idealistic and logical thinking. Socio emotional changes involve individual emotions, personality and relationship with others (Santrock, 2004). Adolescents equally have intellectual, social, physical, emotion, and moral characteristics. Briefly, these characteristics range from modeling behaviour, restlessness, mood swing to storm and stress. They are often characterized by their youthful exuberance and penchant for experimentation especially with sex (Moore, 1993).

Sex is an important terminology in biology and psychology and it is referred to as identity and activity. By identity, it is the anatomical structure of sexual organs associated with certain physiological operations that makes an individual to be identified as male or female. By activity, it involves caressing and sexual intercourse (Sandler, 1980).This is body chemistry and it is what they (adolescents) take as love. It is also involved the location of the adolescent where he/she is residing urban or rural area and those they interact with especially with sex.

Sex education is the education that is filled with worthwhile knowledge concerning sexual behaviours and values that enables adolescents to control their sexual need. It can also be defined as all forms of instructions that deals effectively with adolescent challenges and social relationships directly or indirectly associated with sex (Anyaegbunam, 2003). The author agreed with the report of United Nation (UN) General Assembly (2001) which stated that sex education is the education that develops the skill of young people in making informed choices about their behaviour and feels competent on acting on those choices. Sex education therefore is the knowledge, skill and attitude relating to sex and sexuality that enables adolescents deal with their sex challenges. It is also the educational measures that centers on sex which stand for protection, presentation, improvement and development of an individual (Burt, 2012).

Sex education for adolescents is the process of inculcating knowledge, attitude and skills required to cope with adolescent sex challenges. It involves knowledge, attitude and skill that help to promote and affect positive behaviour change in adolescent. The major aim of sex education is to promote proper development of personality and sexual well being. It also develops in adolescents the desired skill necessary to enhance interactive learning task so that communication, negotiation and listening skills can be developed and practiced (Mario, 2011). It is widely accepted that adolescents have a right to sex education because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against exploitation, unintended pregnancy, STDs, HIV & AIDS. Adolescents faces challenges posed by body and emotional changes, relationships with the opposite sex and ignorance of the dangers inherent in their sexual act such as teenage pregnancy, abortion, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Challenges are difficult task that test someone ability and skill and many adolescent sees challenges as a problem, some of the challenges includes adjusting to the altered appearances, functioning of the maturing body, learning to deal with sexual desires, confronting sexual attitudes and values, experimenting with sexual behaviours and integrating these feelings, attitudes and experiences into a developing sense of adulthood (Moore, 1993).

Skill is the ability coming from ones knowledge, practice, and aptitude to do something well. It is a potential acquired by individual through training which is meant to ensure proficiency and competency in the performance (Nnachi, 2008). Skill develops in an individual a positive social behaviour such as self discipline, good judgment and ability to get along with others and this skill can be gotten in large extent through sex education needs.

Need is a process for determining and addressing gaps between current conditions and desired condition or wants of an individual (Shafloot, 2011). It is also the discrepancy between the current conditions and wanted condition which must be measured to appropriately identify the problems of adolescents which could be a desire to improve current performance to correct a deficiency (Burke, 2005). Need is what one requires in order to meet a target standard                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chutta (1992). Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyemauche and Ekong (1999) explained that need is a requirement deemed necessary for effectiveness. In the context of this study, Need is the sex education knowledge, attitudes and skills adolescent required for social and moral living. It is also necessary to include sex education to upper basic curriculum particularly to catch them young and also to appropriately guide them on their needs through teaching and learning (Nnachi, 2008).

It is therefore important to organize a formal instruction on sex to adolescents in junior secondary school that will guide and mentally prepare them for adulthood roles and equally prevent them from dangers of negative sexual behaviours (Barbara Hasting 2013). Organizing formal instruction involves identifying different areas of need while teaching the components of sex education as thus – sex roles, pre-marital sex and teenage pregnancy, social relationship, personal identity, emotional development, sex drive or sexual feelings in childhood adolescence sense, social aspects, conception, pregnancy and births, physical, emotional and psychological changes during puberty, gender roles, STD (Jateline, 2011) and proper ways of teaching sex education to adolescents which are discussion, lecture, role-play, counseling methods and other methods (MacAuthor, 2003)  in order to get them properly informed and it is necessary and beneficial for society as a whole to have an informed population about sex and sexuality, ignoring STIs, STDS, HIV/AIDS and teen pregnancy won’t make sex related challenges to go away, even if it’s taught from a biology perspective and not a morality perspective, it will still be beneficial. Adolescent are tricked into making bad decisions simply because of ignorance.

This work identified the sex related  challenges of adolescents as it relates to their; body changes, emotional challenges, challenges from their relationship with the opposite sex,  knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to cope with the  above named challenges and areas of sex education needs of adolescents in the junior secondary school of Anambra state. In schools of Anambra state, there are six educational zones which include Aguata, Awka, Nnewi, Ogidi, Onitsha, and Otuocha zones. But Onitsha harbours the highest market in West Africa called the Main Market, Awka is the state capital and Nnewi is also a big city which causes migrants from other zones, people from different part of the country and characters to fill the state. There are cases of sexual harassment, teenage pregnancy, domestic violence, sexual immorality like rape, homosexuals, hence the sex education needs of adolescents that aimed at reducing the risk of potential negative outcomes of adolescence sex practices.


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