Tittle Page                                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Approval page                                                                                                             iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

List of figure                                                                                                               x

Abstract                                                                                                                      xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                    1

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           11

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  13

Significance of the Study                                                                                           13

Scope of the Study                                                                                                    15

Research Questions                                                                                                     16

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 16

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                      18

Conceptual Framework                                                                                           19

Concept of Attitude                                                                                                   20

Concept of Self-concept                                                                                             23

Concept of Achievement                                                                                            26

Concept of Gender                                                                                                     27

Theoretical Framework                                                                                            28

Learning theory of Attitude                                                                                       28

Self-regulation theory                                                                                                 29

Review of empirical Studies                                                                                     30

Attitude and academic achievement                                                                          30

Gender differences in mathematics                                                                            36

Self-concept and academic achievement                                                                    41

Summary of Literature Review                                                                               48


Design of the Study                                                                                                    51

Area of the Study                                                                                                       51

Population of the Study                                                                                              52

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                52

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   52

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                      53

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       54

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         54

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           54

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS                                       55


Discussion of Results                                                                                                  65

Educational Implications of the Findings                                                                   70 Conclusion                                                                                                                  70

Recommendations                                                                                                      71

Limitation of the findings                                                                                           73

Suggestions for further studies                                                                                   73

Summary of the Study                                                                                                73

References                                                                                                                 76


A:  SPSS print out on reliability                                                                                 84

B:  Regression analysis print out                                                                                85

C:  Sample of questionnaire                                                                                       99

Table 3. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of students’ self-concept and theirTable 1.  Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of students’ attitude and their

academic achievement in mathematics.

Table 2.  Regression  Analysis of the relationship between students’ attitude and their academic

achievement in mathematics.

academic achievement in mathematics.

Table 4. . Regression  Analysis of the relationship between students’ self-concept  and their

academic achievement in mathematics.

Table 5. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of the difference in the relationship

between  students’ attitude and their academic achievement in mathematics based on


Table 6.  Regression  Analysis of the relationship in the difference between students’ attitude

and their academic achievement in mathematics based on gender.

Table 7. Pearson’s Product moment Correlation Analysis of the difference between students’

self-concept and their academic achievement in mathematics based on gender.

Regression Analysis of the relationship between students’ self-concept  and their

academic achievement in mathematics based on gender.

Table 9. A model summary of the inter-relationship between students’ attitude, self-concept and their academic achievement in mathematics.

Table 10. Regression Analysis of the inter-relationship between students’ attitude, self-concept

and academic achievement in mathematics.

List of Figure

 Figure 1. Conceptual Framework                                                                               19


This study examined the students’ attitude and self-concept as correlates of their achievement in senior Secondary School mathematics in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State of Nigeria. The design was correlational research type. The target populations for the study were mathematics students of senior secondary II (SS II) classes in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. The sample for the study was three hundred and thirty two (332) mathematics students (male: 166 and female: 166) selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Five hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The instruments used to elicit the relevant data were: A twenty item instrument questionnaire called Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) and a twenty item instrument questionnaire called Academic Self-concept Questionnaire (ASCQ) designed by the researcher and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd  terms examination scores of students in their senior secondary one mathematics were obtained as the students’ academic achievement. The reliability coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 for MAS and ASCQ respectively were obtained.  The data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that: there is significant relationship between students’ attitude and their academic achievement in mathematics, also the results revealed a significant relationship between students’ self-concept and their academic achievement in mathematics in senior secondary school mathematics. A significant difference between male and female students’ attitude, self-concept and their academic achievement in mathematics in secondary school mathematics was also found in favour of female. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended  among others that academic achievement is not a gender issue, both genders should be encouraged to excel in academic achievement since equal opportunities is provided for both genders. Students should be discouraged from forming stereotyped attitude and self-concept towards certain subjects, because of their sexes. This will boost positive competition between males and females, and enhance academic achievement and excellence among senior secondary school mathematics students. 



Background of the Study

Mathematics throughout the world is regarded as essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and social sciences. Branches of Mathematics include: algebra which are abstract algebra, modules, vector spaces, combinatory and number theory; analysis which include: calculus, real and complex analysis, vector and tensor analysis, differential equations and functional analysis; geometry which includes euclidean and geometry, affine, metric, projective geometry, discrete geometry, differential geometry and algebraic geometry; foundations which are Logic, computability, recursion theory, set theory, category theory and applied mathematics which are probability, statistics, game theory system and control theory and computer science (Obodo, 2004). Applied mathematics as a branch of mathematics is concerned with the application of mathematical knowledge to other fields. This branch of mathematics inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries which has led to the development of entirely new mathematics disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and recording of time. The use of mathematics has since been greatly extended to politics, stock market, financial calculations (like budget), population, competition, and even as a prestige (Usman & Ojo, 2014).

Mathematics is a science with the basic scientific skills and objectives. Zakariyya (2014) posited that without mathematics, there will be no science, without sciences there will be no technology and without technology there will be no modern society. From this statement, it is therefore an accepted truth that no society can reach heights of greatness unless there is an ample supply of dedicated men and women in all fields critical to its growth, and developing such experts like scientists and technologists to satisfy the concept, there is a need for a good knowledge of mathematics in order to work efficiently. Education enables science and technology with a good knowledge of mathematics to convert human skills and enterprises into materials wealth and social amenities. It affords man a comfortable living and simplifies man activities. For instance, technology has provided a tractor for farming instead of a hoe and a vacuum cleaner for clearing instead of broom, while science is primarily concerned with the production of knowledge, technology is concerned with its use with mathematics playing an essential role in the development of technology.  The future and longevity of any social sector depends on how many talented young people are attracted to mathematics (Usman & Ojo, 2014).

According to Thomaskutty and George (2008), mathematics cannot be considered as a classroom discipline only. This implied that not only an academician, a scientist, or an engineer, need mathematics but also a shopkeeper, a housewife, a sportsman, a farmer, and an employee need mathematics. A common man gets on sometimes very well without learning how to read and write, but he can never pull on without learning how to count and calculate. Thus mathematics has therefore become an everyday and everybody’s phenomenon. Man uses it directly or indirectly in everyday life or activities. It is a human invention, borne out of human in attempt to solve human problems (Kolawole & Oluwatayo, 2005). In spite of all these importance accorded to mathematics in the society, there exist low levels of mathematics attainment of students at every segment of the educational system in the country. This has given many educators/stakeholders a high level of concern (Ajayi, Abiola & Adeyanju, 2011).

There are many factors suspected to be responsible for low level of students’ academic achievement in mathematics. Some of these factors include; students’ mathematical achievement score, teaching materials, teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter, parental background, extrinsic motivation, anxiety, interest, attitude and self-concept (Kogce, Yildaz, Aydiz & Altindaz, 2009).


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