Title page                                                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Approval page                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgments                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

List of appendices                                                                                                       ix

List of Tables                                                                                                              x                                                                                                Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                               1

Background of the Study                                                                                   1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                         10

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                10

Significance of the Study                                                                                         11

Scope of the Study                                                                                            13

Research Questions                                                                                           13

Hypotheses                                                                                                       14

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                      15                                                       

Conceptual Framework                                                                                    16

Chemistry                                                                                                          17

Achievement                                                                                                      21

Interest                                                                                                               23

Teaching Methods                                                                                               26

The Concept of Cooperative Learning                                                                   31

The Concept of Analogy                                                                                       41

Gender                                                                                                                 47

Theoretical Framework                                                                                        48

Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory                                                                             49

Wolfgang Kohler Cognitive Field Theory                                                                          49

Empirical Studies                                                                                                     51

Studies on Achievement and Interest                                                                         51

Studies on Cooperative Learning                                                                               52

Studies on Analogy                                                                                                    55

Studies on Gender                                                                                                      57


Summary of Literature Review                                                                                 59


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                              61                                                    

Design of the Study                                                                                                    61

Area of the Study                                                                                                       62

Population of the Study                                                                                              62

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                               63

Instruments for data Collection                                                                                   63

Validation of Instruments                                                                                           63

Reliability of the Instruments                                                                                     64

Experimental Procedure                                                                                                        65

Method of data Analysis                                                                                                     65


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                                                                                        67

Research Question one                                                                                                         67

Hypothesis one                                                                                                                      67

Research Question two                                                                                                         68

Hypothesis two                                                                                                                     69

Research Question Three                                                                                                     70

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                                 71

Research Question four                                                                                                        71

Hypothesis four                                                                                                                    73

Hypothesis five                                                                                                                    73

Hypothesis six                                                                                                                    74

Summary of Findings                                                                                                         74


Effect of Teaching Methods on Students’ Achievement Chemistry                                76

Effect of Gender on Students’ Achievement in Chemistry                                              77

Effect of Teaching Methods on Students’ Interest in Chemistry                                     77

Effect of Gender on Students’ Interest in Chemistry                                                                  78

Interaction Effects Between Gender and Instructional Strategy on

Students’ mean   Achievement Score in Chemistry                                                        78

Interaction Effects Between Gender and Instructional Strategy on

Students’ mean Interest Score in Chemistry                                                                   79

Conclusions                                                                                                                      79

Educational Implications of the Study                                                                            80

Limitations                                                                                                                       81

Recommendations                                                                                                            81

Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                        82

Summary of the Study                                                                                                   83

REFERENCES                                                                                                            86                                                                                                                

   APPENDICES                                                                                                             95

A: Scheme of work                                                                                              95

B: Table of Specification                                                                                           96

C: Chemistry Achievement test After Validation                                                  97                                                    D: Marking Scheme for the Chemistry Achievement tes                                   100

E: Chemistry Interest Scale After Validation                                                         101

F: Computation of Reliability test                                                                       103

G: Validity Result of Factor Analysis                                                                 105

H: Sample size of SSS 2 Students                                                                       108

I: Request for Validation                                                                                     109

J: Lesson plan                                                                                                      110

K: Results of Data Analyzed                                                                                         132


1: Mean and Standard Deviation of Pre-test and Post-test Achievement’s

Score of Students Taught Chemistry Using Cooperative Learning and

Those Taught Using Analogy.                                                                                             67


2: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of Students’ Achievement

in Chemistry.                                                                                                            68


3: Mean and Standard Deviation of Pre-test and Post-test Achievement

Score of male and Female Students’ Taught Chemistry Using

Cooperative Learning and Those Taught Using Analogy.                                             68


4: Mean and Standard Deviation of Pre-test and Post-test Interest

Scores of Students Taught Using Cooperative Learning and Those

Taught Using Analogy.                                                                                            70


5: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of Students’ Interest in

Chemistry.                                                                                                                 71


6: Mean and Standard Deviation of Pre-test and Post-test Interest

Scores of male and Female Students’ Taught Chemistry Using

Cooperative Learning and Those Taught Using Analogy.                                           72


This study investigated the effects of Cooperative learning and Analogy Methods on Secondary School Students achievement and interest in chemistry. The study which adopted a quasi-experimental design was conducted in four secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State. Out of these schools, two schools were exposed to the use of Cooperative learning (experimental 1) while the remaining two used Analogy method (experimental 2). One experiment was meant to control the other. The sample comprised 253 senior secondary school two (SSS2) chemistry students. The instruments used were chemistry achievement test (CAT) and chemistry interest scale (CIS) which were developed by the researcher and subjected to face, content and construct validation. While the reliability of the (CAT) was established using Kudder – Richardson formula 20 (K-R) 20 and 0.83 was obtained, the (CIS) reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s Alpha method and 0.84 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the hypotheses at P<0.05. The result of the study revealed that both cooperative learning and analogy methods brought about significant shift in achievement and interest of SSS2 chemistry students. The researcher therefore recommended that chemistry teachers should employ cooperative learning and analogy methods of teaching in teaching their students for better understanding and achievement. In addition, other constructivist based teaching methods should be introduced in the pre-service teachers’ programme while the teachers in service should be upgraded through workshops and seminars on the effective use of these methods for the improvement of chemistry education and chemistry related courses in the Nigeria institution of higher learning.




Background of the study

              Science holds a great potential for mankind in terms of providing him with the means of reducing life’s burden on earth. Science plays profound roles in the life of individuals and the nation. Broadly, science can be defined as a body of knowledge, which is acquired through observation and systematic experimentation (Ezeudu, 2011). Science is an important enterprise. It is a way of using human intelligence to achieve better understanding of nature and natural phenomena. Science is a systematized co-ordinated knowledge based upon the accurate observation of facts and the relation of these to the general principles of laws. According to Aniodoh (2002), Science enables man as an individual to take rational decision, create a just society and understand the environment. It helps to improve an individual’s life expectancy and provides him means of tackling problems of existence such as disease and hunger. The author also emphasized that contributions of science could be seen in the area of our modern health, automation, genetic engineering; gene cloning, agriculture, transportation, building and construction. The positive overall impacts of science on the life of individuals and national economy explain why most countries including Nigeria are making huge investment in the field of science today.

Science is divided into two main branches viz Biological sciences and physical sciences. The biological sciences deal with living things, while the physical sciences are concerned with properties of non-living matter. Chemistry being a physical science is one of the main branches of pure science. These branches of science are being taught by science educators using scientific processes and educational principles.