ABSTRACT

Title page                                                                                                                    i

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           10

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  11

Significant of the Study                                                                                             11

Scope of the Study                                                                                                     13

Research Questions                                                                                                     13

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 14

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                      15

Conceptual Framework                                                                                           16

Concept of Equation                                                                                                   16

Concept of Gender                                                                                                     31

Concept of Teaching Experience                                                                                34

Teachers’ Mathematical Conceptions                                                                         34

Other Related Sub-Themes                                                                                      36

Mathematics and its Importance                                                                                 36

Problems of Teaching and Learning Mathematics                                                      39

Theoretical Framework                                                                                            40

The Cognitive theory of learning                                                                                40

Constructivist theory of Learning                                                                               41

Empirical Studies                                                                                                      42

Teachers’ conceptions about teaching and learning of mathematics                          42

Teacher’ conceptions as determined by teaching experience                                     46

Teachers’conceptions as determined by gender                                                         47

Summary of Literatures                                                                                           49

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                                                                         51

Area of the Study                                                                                                       51

Population of the Study                                                                                              51

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                              52

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   52

Validation of the Instruments                                                                                     52

Trial Testing                                                                                                                53

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       53

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         53

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           53

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

Research Question 1                                                                                                   54

Research Question 2                                                                                                   56

Research Question 3                                                                                                   57

Research Question 4                                                                                                   58

Research Question 5                                                                                                   58

Research Question 6                                                                                                   59

Hypothesis 1                                                                                                               60

Hypothesis 2                                                                                                               60

Hypothesis 3                                                                                                               61

Hypothesis 4                                                                                                               61

Summary of Finding                                                                                                   62

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

Discussion of the Finding                                                                                           63

Conclusion                                                                                                                  66

Implication of the Finding of the Study                                                                     67

Limitations                                                                                                                  67

Recommendations                                                                                                      68

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                 68

Summary of the Study                                                                                                69

REFERENCES                                                                                                        71

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Mathematics is one of the core subjects that is taught in Nigerian secondary schools. It is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. It also deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation (Attah and Guwam, 2014). Mathematics holds the potency of making individuals relate its knowledge to everyday problems being encountered by individuals in the society. This is why mathematics is an important subject in the education of a child. With the knowledge of mathematics, the child can easily actualize some of the educational objectives and will be able to function well in the society. This is why the schools mathematics curriculum formulated most of these stated objectives,which can be actualized through the mathematics teachers.

The teacher being at the centre of the entire education at all levels is the most potent instrument for ensuring the fullest possible development of the student. The mathematics teachers play a vital role in the teaching and learning of the students and also help to expose the learners to numerous possibilities, which can be explored to deal with individual and group problems. This is why they are the initiator of creativity (Ugwuda, 2014). The mathematics teachers actualize the above goals through the school mathematics curriculum.

The mathematics curriculum is a set of planned learning experiences which are taught in schools, directed and evaluated by the mathematics teachers to attain specified goals with recommended materials (Attah and Guwam, 2014). The mathematics curriculum is an official document stating educational aims, goals and objectives for a particular subject in the school system. Thus, the curriculum specifies what should be taught, why it should be taught, how it should be taught and to whom it should be taught (Ughamadu, 2006). This document is further broken down to syllabus, scheme of work, unit of lesson and lesson plan. The mathematics teachers prepare the lesson plan for teaching a particular topic from the scheme of work in which equationsis included. For effective teaching and learning the mathematics teachers use the scheme of work. This scheme of work is usually a guide in planning what is to be done per week over a term, and for the three terms in an academic year in school. The various topics are stipulated for student learning in the scheme of work, including equations, which are taught in second term in SS II class.

In mathematics, equations are statements that show that two algebraic expressions are equal in value. For example, 6x – 4 = 2x – 1 with an unknown x value. This equation is only true when x has a particularknown  numerical value. In mathematics, letters of the alphabet are used, to stand for numbers e.g. 8 + p. Any letter can be used. For example 8 + a would be just as good as 8 + p. Capital letters are not used, only small letters are used. When using a letter instead of a number, the letter can stand for any number in general. When letters and numbers are used together in this way the mathematics is called algebra.

The word algebra comes from a book written by Mohammed Musa al Khnowarizmi- around AD836. The title of the book was Al-jabrwa’IMuqabalah. The statement y + 3 = 14 is called an algebraic expression, which means an unknown number y plus 3 equal or make 14. The number that the letter stands for should make the sentence true. To solve an equation means to find the real number value of the unknown that makes the equation true. The two most common equations taught at secondary school are linear equations and quadratic equations, (Macra et al, 2007).

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