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The Effect of COVID-19 on Almajiri Educational System In Nigeria

The Effect of COVID-19 on Almajiri Educational System In Nigeria 

INTRODUCTION

Generations upon generations, there is no end to the sight of young children of school age roaming the streets in a quest for survival. As an age-old tradition, these kids are popularly called ‘Almajiri’ – children from poor homes usually sent to Islamic boarding schools. Formal education remains a far cry for thousands of these children.

Put into perspective, Nigeria has about 13.2 million out of school children. In West Africa, Nigeria accounts for 45 per cent of out-of-school children. 69 per cent of the out-of-school in Nigeria are from Northern Nigeria, with 60 per cent of them comprising of girls. The number of out-of-school children in Nigeria has increased from 10.5 million in 2010 to 13.2 million in 2015. Some of the contributive factors to this issue is the protracted violent conflict in Northeast Nigeria. The destruction of schools by insurgents, forced displacement, and the volatile nature of the region has grossly impacted accessibility to primary education in the area.

Over the years, the Almajiri programme has co-existed alongside the formal school system; it has failed to be subsumed into the formal education sector. For instance, Nigeria’s former president, Goodluck Jonathan, reportedly spent about N15 billion in building Almajiri schools in an effort to integrate basic education into the almajiri system. There have been reports that are the structures built for the purpose have either been used for conventional education or lay waste because its pupils have gone back to the old ways of street begging.

Conflict experts hold that having vulnerable children in cities across a nation that is fighting an ideological war is a terrible risk. For instance, it has been widely reiterated that the reason Boko Haram insurgents has continued to wage war against the Nigerian state is as a result of a robust recruitment source. The almajiri system has created a mass of vulnerable younglings who are susceptible to the antics of conflict promoters upon the promise of material reward or psycho-social brainwashing.

The deportation of the almajiri children in the middle of the Coronavirus pandemic has cast more light in the dark. For the many years the almajiri system has existed, it has been perceived by many as constituting public nuisance. In the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, where free movements have been banned and social distancing greatly promoted, the almajiri way of life is greatly threatened. Hundreds of almajiri children have been deported from across different states of the federation; in a bid to flatten the spread of the Coronavirus. In some cases, some of them have tested positive to COVID-19. Nigeria’s House of Representatives has also called on the Federal government to stop state governments from repatriating almajiri children.

Beyond COVID-19, the almajiri system requires collective action. This should involve both the federal and state governments to map out a holistic policy action to address the issues around almajiri system. Also, traditional and religious institutions have a vital role to play, considering that the practice is deeply rooted in cultural and religious sentiments. Governmental actions can only provide the capacity for reforms; it will require the collaborations of relevant stakeholders, including the Northern elites, for meaningful impact to be achieved and sustainability guaranteed. Without a comprehensive policy initiative, the almajiri children remain the evidence of dearth of social security for citizens of the country.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INVERTER

ABSTRACT

This project is titled the construction of a DC to AC inverter system. It is designed to meet up with the power demand in the offices and in homes in the absence of power supply from the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN. In order words the device/item serves as a s substitute for PHCN which almost monopolises the power supply to people. It is constructed in such a way that it will take up 12V DC from battery and inverts it to an output of 240V,  50Hz AC. It makes no noise during operation and no hazardous carbon monoxide is generated in the surrounding. This is a featured that makes it safe to use any were when compared to charging the battery (i.e. 12V source) when the power from the supply authority is on. This greatly reduces the cost of operation of the system.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

An inverter is an electrical/electronic device that accept DC input either from battery or solar cell power (12V or 24V AC).

This device is very convenient as they allow the use of standard “mains” appliances on a DC battery system.

Unfortunately, inverters are normally only suitable for occasional use on a remote solar or wind power system. Inverters are great for washing machines, power tools and vaccum cleaners which tend to have starter running times. However, due to the stand by and internal power losses in even the most efficient inverters, loads such as lighting and refrigerators are often run directly from DC. The larger the inverter, the larger the self consumption figure. Some power inverter are offer fitted with remote switches so that they can be turned off easily when not in use. It also makes sense to try and match the inverter to the load, of running a small load from a large inverter will be inefficient.

A 5000watts inverter system can produces pure 5000watts power of alternating current despite the losses in the system.

The inverter process can be achieved with the help of an electronics circuit called an oscillator. The oscillator helps to convert the incoming DC into AC before amplification and stepping up by the output transformer.

Inverter system can take an input voltage of 24volt DC which is normally achieved by connecting two 12volts battery in series or it can take an input voltage of 12volt DC, which is normally achieved by connecting two or more 12volt battery in parallel to increase its current. Both of the two input voltage depends on the design of the inverter system.

The configuration of this battery either series or parallel is known as power bank. The power capacity of the power bank can be increased by connecting two or more battery in parallel to achieve an increase in current, or connecting two 12 volts battery in series to achieve 24 volts DC. The more you connect or add load to the inverters system the less the standing by time (Charles, 2005).

1.1 Background of the Project

The background of the study is a broad description of the educational trend that is anticipated to impact to the student more technical knowledge in the field of their endeavor.

It is also a social concern and an unresolved issue which is needed to be resolved not only theoretically but on the practical phase of it.

Owing to the unavoidable power failure we do encounter in our country which has increased rapidly, an idea to design an alternative power supply which can deliver power to our electronic gadget without causing noise and environmental pollution comes up. The design and construction of this inverter shows that theoretical knowledge of the study is been translated into a practical functional system which can be very useful to the society in the events of frequent power supply failure (Edward, 2005).

1.2 Aim/Objectives of the Project

When the design and construction of this inverter system is achieved with a successful result, it serves as an alternative power supply which will produces AC power to our electrical and electronic gadget without causing noise and environmental pollution. This inverter system is expected to be used in emergency situation or in time when we are working with gadget that does not require power interruption because the stand by time of the inverter system is decreased with an increase in load.

Moreover, as the market is getting filled with an increased number of electronic gadget with low power consumption. This creates room for use to use inverter system for long period of time in time of power failure (Kelvin, 1997).

1.3 The Scope of the Project

The scope and the extent which led to the success and limitation of this system that depend on the circuit system design of this inverter system which at time makes room for modification.

This system as earlier stated; should not be operated on load or load above the rated power that is (5000W) and besides, the expected output voltage form this system is just 240V alternating voltage. Any appliance whose voltage or power rating is above it as load.

Carrying this system from place to place is an easy affair since the system is designed in such a way that it is very portable.

It has been stated earlier that the working duration of the system depends so much on the power bank. The more the current rating of the batteries created in Ampere per hour). The longer the inverter will deliver it output provided the power rating is not exceeded (Daniel, 2001).

1.4 Limitation of the Study

The cost of procurement of necessary materials needed for this research has been a barrier, because of the economic situation in the country. Time factor is also considered, since a project of this nature can be achieved without a maximum concentration, so this also been one of the limitations of this project work (Cory, 1999).

PATTERNS AND INCIDENCE OF CHILD ABUSE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

PATTERNS AND INCIDENCE OF CHILD ABUSE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Child abuse has become a global problem that needs to be tackled if children are to be given the right to education and freedom. The issue of child abuse has been given serious attention in many parts of the world and Nigeria is not left out. Given this serious effort, one would have thought that this menace will not persist (Alexander, 2009).

Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents / guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by child minders. Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers (Brunk, Henggeler and Whelan, 1997).

A child is a person that has not attained the age of 18. For centuries, the Nigerian child has been seen as an instrument or property with no absolute privilege of its own. In the traditional African society the belief was that children should merely be seen and not heard. Children were not allowed to listen to adults’ discussion/conversation let alone make contributions. This situation was prevalent not only in the society but found its way into the educational system. Consequently, teachers only all owned children to make contributions when they deemed necessary (Chang, Theodore, Martin, and Runyan, 2008).

Recently, there has been serious concern about the child with the realization that children play important part in the family and the society. It is generally agreed that children are the future generation, the leaders of tomorrow and the potential flag bearers of any nation. To carry out these duties, the child therefore has certain rights that must be protected and not be trampled upon or denied (Craig and Sprang, 2007).

Child abuse can be defined as causing or permitting any harmful or offensive contact on a child’s body; and, any communication or transaction of any kind which humiliates, shames, or frightens the child. Some child development experts go a bit further, and define child abuse as any act or omission, which fails to nurture or in the upbringing of the children (Currie and Spatz, 2010).

The child abuse prevention and Treatment Dunn, Culhane, and Tassig (2010) defines child abuse and neglect as: a minimum, any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. A child of any age, sex, race, religion, and socioeconomic background can fall victim of child abuse and neglect. There are many factors that may contribute to the occurrence of child abuse and neglect. Parents may be more likely to maltreat their children if they abuse drugs or alcohol. Some parents may not be able to cope with the stress resulting from the changes any may experience difficulty in caring for their children (Eisen, Goodman, Qin, Davis and Crayton, 2007).

Child abuse is the physical or emotional harm to children caused by parents, guardians or other adult members of the society, Achilles (2000). In the United States of example, physical abuses per a million people are reported each year. An approximately equal number of cases of serious neglect are reported. One third of all types of child abuse affect children under 1 year of age, one-third from ages 1 to 3 and one third over 3 years. Every country of the world has laws requiring physicians and other professionals to report suspect child abuse (Greenberg, Warwar, S., and Malcolm, W. (2008).

Oloko (2005) is of the opinion that the magnitude of child abuse neglects and its frequency of occurrence are such that it has attracted global attention for example, she claims that the protection of children from all forms of abuse has been a major crusade in our society and beyond. According to her, symposia were organized in Lagos arid other places to mark the day of the African child in which people participated. Representative from United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) were not left out. In addition, other organization such as the Organisation for African United (QUA) the International Labour Organisation (ILO) etc frowned at this phenomenon in the society.

Children are abused in many ways by either parents or the adult members of the society. The abuse ranges from sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, emotional abuse, to total neglect which in any case leads to their negative social behavior in the society (Hildvard and Wolfe, 2002). Child sexual abuse and neglect are widely regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The possible influence of child sexual abuse on adult social and economic functioning has not received the attention it perhaps deserves, as well as documented difficulties that sexually abused children experience in the school situation with academic performance and behavior (Hussey, Chang and Kotch, 2006).

Macfie, Cicchetti and Toth, (2001) states that, the fact that the Nigerian children are subjected to various forms of abuse and neglect by individuals and the society does not means that it is legal and fashionable to treat children in such manner. He therefore, supports the opinion of the Nigeria constitution, which stipulates in chapter 11, section 18 that children of young persons and the aged in our society or communities are to be protected against moral or material neglect.

Reinert and Edwards (2009) states that in the United States of America, various laws are made in order to protect the interest of children. Their provision is further buttressed by the fact that the children must not be subjected to any kind of abuse or neglect. Moreso, as they symbolize the further growth of the society in which they live.

Children abuse has caused untold hardship on the children who are abused, especially children given to serve people as house helps, in many cases, children who serve as house helps do not go to school. Even, when they go to school their school fees are not paid promptly and their necessary schools materials such as school uniforms, textbooks, exercise books etc are not provided. This condition of being a house help lead a child to absenteeism, truancy and dropping out of school syndrome (Reinert and Edwards, 2009).

These in any case, lead to poor academic performance, anti social behavior and poor socio-economic status of the child when he/she becomes an adult member of the society. In many cases, child abuse has led to prostitution, and sexual harassment which in turn led to unwanted pregnancies, aborting, death or early motherhood without education. For example a girl child who hawks wares on the street may end up being a prostitute and consequently contracting sexually transmitted disease such as the deadly HIV/AIDS and this may lead to premature death and cutting short of her opportunity and career in life (Nwagbo, 2004).

Child abuse may be limited to the following factors: Lack of parental care, poverty, loss of parents or death of breadwinner(s) in the home, parental separation of marital divorce (Russell, 2004). Some of these factors can lead to a child being left in the hands of care-giver, such as step-parents/guardians etc who now mishandle the affairs of the child in the most unfortunate way or manner which contributes abuse to the child’s social behavior and cannot be over emphasized. Due to the abuse meted on the child by those who are supposed to take care of him /her, make the child to be socially maladjusted in the immediate community or society where he/she finds him/her self. This leads to social deviations and delinquencies which are anti-social behaviours or negative norms the society abhorrers and avoids (Romero, Donohue and Allen, 2010).

Bamidele (2003) state that children are commonly seen in Lagos hawking while their parents/guardians comfortably sit at home waiting for the proceeds, apart from not being in school, female children are given out in early marriages at a very tender age. Also, the female genital mutilation abounds in almost all parts of the country today, it is very pathetic to observe that despite media reports regarding its hazards some parents and guardians still subject their children or wards to this dangerous practice,. It is impossible to eradicate child abuse or neglect when in actual fact, parents/guardians, actively encourage it. For example, in some communities, parents actually give out their children or wards as house helps only to come at the end of the month for salary.

Not all children exposed to similar experiences of abuse and neglect are affected in the same way. A range of other life experiences and family circumstances both positive and negative impact on a child’s vulnerability or resilience. These are referred to as risk and protective factors”. Resilience refers to the ability of a child to cope and even thrive after a negative experience (child welfare information gateway, 2008). When a child who has experienced abuse or neglect has few protective factors (such as positive relationships with extended family and friends), the risk of more serious adverse outcomes increases. Risk factors that may contribute to poorer outcomes for children exposed to abuse and neglect include socio-economic disadvantage, social isolation, dangerous neighourhoods, large families and whether the child has a disability (Dubowitz and Benneth, 2007).

In spite of the risks of negative outcomes, some children exposed to maltreatment may emerge unscatted due to protective factors that strengthen their resilience (Runyon, Deblinger, Ryan and Thakkar-Kolar, 2004). Factors that contribute to a child’s resilience include child attributes (such as self-esteem and independence), features of the family environment and community resources (Mapp, 2006).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The increase in the incidence of child abuse in the society has been of great concern to both the government and educationists. The issues of child abuse have been persistent in many parts of the country. Many children who are neglected by their parents are a times hooligans, robbers etc while the female ones go into prostitute and other related cases, such as rape, sexual harassment, drug abuse and addiction which is a deviant behavior in the society.

The rate of which adolescents are turning to become touts and hooligans in the society is one of the reasons this researcher is embarking on this study. This is because many students from good homes seem to turn out to have anti social

Behaviour. Perhaps due to the problem of parental abuse or neglect. The numbers of homeless, street trading, touts, area boys and girls have increased greatly overtime.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence and patterns of child abuse among primary school pupils in Lagos State. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  • To find out whether physical abuse of children influences their social behaviour.
  • To investigate whether a relationship exists between sexual abuse and children’s social behaviour.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions will guide the conduct of this study:

To what extent is child abuse prevalent among primary school pupils?
What are the patterns of child abuse?
To what extent does physical abuse influence the social behaviour of children?
Is there any relationship between sexual abuse and children’s social behaviour?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis will be tested in the study:

There is no significant influence of physical abuse on children’s social behaviour.
There is no significant influence of sexual abuse on children’s social behavior.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The importance of this research work will be that it would provide more knowledge to the masses especially, the parents or guardians on the implications of any from of child abuse and neglect on adolescents and children.

It will also enlighten people on the different forms of abuse of children and maltreatment and various ways it would also suggest the best methods of handling the issue of child abuse in the society. As this has posed serious concerns to both the government and parents in the country today.

Not only that, new upcoming researchers and students would find this work a great treasure and reference material in their future work.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will be limited to the influence of child abuse on the social behavior of children in Ogudu Nursery Primary School, Ogudu Ojota Lagos State.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

  • Child Abuse

Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional ill-treatment or neglect of a child, especially by those responsible for its welfare.

  • Parents

A parent is a caretaker of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is of a child (where “child” refers to offspring, not necessarily age).

  • Pupil

A student in primary school under the direct supervision of a teacher or professor

  • Sexual Assault

Sexual activity that is deemed improper or harmful, as between an adult and a minor or with a person of diminished mental capacity. It is a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat.

  • Child Neglect

failure of caretakers to provide adequate emotional and physical care for a child.

  • Child Maltreatment

Words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child.

  • Primary school

A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education

Advertising as a major tool applied by the government in tackling coronavirus

Advertising as a major tool applied by the government in tackling coronavirus( case study Lagos state )

Introduction

Background to the Study

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan China in December 2019, has rapidly spread to almost every region of the world. The disease is caused by a new and severe type of Coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2). The infection has no immediate treatment and vaccine, and it has according to World Health Organization (WHO, 2020) become a worldwide pandemic causing significant morbidity and mortality. There are 1,603,428 confirmed cases, 356,440 recoveries from the illness and 95,714 deaths worldwide as of April 9, 2020 (Worldometers, 2020). On February 27, 2020, an Italian citizen became the index case for COVID-19 in Nigeria and as at April 9, 2020, there were 288 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria with 51 discharges and 7 deaths (Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, NCDC, 2020).

To prevent further spread of the virus,  Nigerian government  embarked on advertisement and enlightenment campaigns for good hygiene and social distancing. Temperature screening was conducted at airports and those returning from countries with numerous confirmed cases of COVID-19 were implored to self-isolate. The NCDC in association with State governments also began tracing and tracking of possible victims and their contacts. On March 18, 2020, the Lagos State government suspended all gatherings above fifty people for four weeks and ordered all lower and middle level public officers to stay-at-home (Ewodage, 2020). Similarly, the Federal government, on March 30, 2020 introduced various containment strategies such as closing of the national borders and airspace, schools, worship centers and other public places, canceling of mass gathering events and placing the Federal Capital Territory, Lagos and Ogun states on lock down for an initial period of fourteen days (Radio Nigeria, 2020). Covid-19 testing laboratories were set up in Lagos, Abuja and Irrua in Edo State while State governments opened isolation centres and imposed dawn to dust curfews in their territories

COVID-19, from the family of Coronavirus (others include SARS, H5N1, H1N1 and MERS), is a contagious respiratory illness transmitted through the eyes, nose, and mouth, via droplets from coughs and sneezes, close contact with infected person and contaminated surfaces. It has an incubation period of approximately one to fourteen days. The symptoms include cough, fever and shortness of breath, and it is diagnosed through a laboratory test. The contagion could lead to severe respiratory problems or death, particularly among the elderly and persons with underlying chronic illnesses. Some infected persons however, are carriers for the virus with no symptoms while others may experience only a mild illness and recover easily (Sauer, 2020). As there is currently no cure or vaccine for the COVID-19; medical treatments are limited to supportive measures aimed at relieving symptoms, use of research drugs and therapeutics.

Knowledge of infection pathways and relevant precautions to take is needed to control the pandemic. While the scientific community continues to research possible vaccines or drugs for the viral infection, it is expected that adequate knowledge will motivate individuals to make decisions which may prevent and curb the epidemics. Knowledge such as regular hand washing, using hand sanitizers, wearing face masks, respiratory etiquettes, social distancing and selfisolation when sick are vital to reducing widespread infection (Leppin & Aro, 2009). Studies (e.g. Brug, Aro, Oenema, de Zwart, Richardus & Bishop, 2004; Choi & Yang, 2010; Hussain, Hussain & Hussain 2012) revealed that individuals’ level of knowledge about an infectious disease can make them behave in ways that may prevent infection. Consequently, individuals may need to be informed about the potential risks of infections in order to adopt the right precautionary measures (Brug, Aro & Richardus, 2009)

At early stages of a pandemic, precautionary measures are needed to protect against possible danger and curtail the disease spread. In line with this therefore, the Nigerian government (just like other governments around the world) introduced various containment strategies which have interfered with individuals’ daily lives and have led to severe economic loss and social disruption. People were coerced to stay at home, businesses and offices were closed, exempting healthcare facilities/workers and ―essential‖ commercial establishments. For Nigerians making a living in the informal economy, their livelihood is now threatened by the lockdown since much of their activities and businesses involve face-to-face contact. In Nigeria there is no social safety net, no access to food stamps or unemployment benefits, most people earn their living on a daily basis. Regardless of this however, there has so far been a high degree of compliance with the government directives, Nigerians are engaging in vigilant hand washing, practicing social distancing and self-isolation, and avoiding going to work, school or crowded areas. Even most religious leaders agreed to stop large gatherings, forbid the shaking of hands and directed church members to pray at home and use hand sanitizers (Makinde, Nwogu, Ajaja & Alagbe, 2020; Olatunji, 2020).

On the other hand, some Nigerians due to superstitions and ignorance of the science behind the infection prefer only to pray (even violating the social distancing rule by attending churches or mosques during the lockdown) and use anointing oils, talisman, herbs or rituals (Abati, 2020) to prevent contracting and spreading the virus. Some also use social media platforms (e.g. Whatsapp, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram) to spread fear, project fake news concerning the source of the virus, promote prejudice against China, incite panic buying, proffer fake cures and undermine medical advice, deliberately or ignorantly (Hassan, 2020). They opined that lockdown, self-isolation and social distancing are un-African solutions to the pandemic (Abati, 2020). Given the importance of knowledge of precautionary activities in curbing the spread of infectious diseases such as the novel COVID-19, it is important to research on people’s health knowledge at this period of the pandemic. Richards (2017) reported that knowledge among ordinary people about how to eliminate risks of contracting Ebola virus led to a rapid drop in mid-2015 in the number of cases of infection. Therefore, in this study, we hope to ascertain the level of the knowledge of COVID-19 among a sample of Nigerians as well as their perceptions of the pandemic.

Entrepreneur Education as a Tool for reducing unemployment in Nigeria A case study of Federal Ministry of Labour Abuja)

ABSTRACT

This study examines Entrepreneurial   Education as a tool for Reducing unemployment in Nigeria .The population of the study comprises of staffs of Federal Ministry of Labour Abuja. A sample of 100 were composed and used for the study through purposive sampling technique. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire titled “Entrepreneurial  Education as a tool for Reducing unemployment in Nigeria (EERUN) which was design using Likert – 5- point rating scale. The EERUN was specifically used to obtained information base on the research questions. The research questions were answered using mean with standard deviation. It was found that Skills such as welding and fabrication, food and catering services, electrical installation etc can make Nigerian graduates entrepreneurs to reduce unemployment. Creation of jobs for self-employment, stimulation of rural, economic and industrial development are benefits of entrepreneurial education to Nigerian graduates. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Entrepreneurial education in tertiary institutions should be practically oriented rather than theory as this will exposed the students to various lucrative skills, Access to credits/loans should be granted without collateral in order to make the training realizable and achievable.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 Nigeria is bedeviled by a myriad of problems which, despite her oil wealth, inhibit her development and even threaten her continued existence as a sovereign state. Nigeria’s socio-political and economic circumstances give the significant indication that many of her problems stem from an origin of artificial colonial construct which lumped together a variety of separate peoples. Fragmentation of the nation is seen as a distinct possibility unless its citizens can be induced to accept a new sense of Nigerian identity, involving a commitment to the survival of the present state as a cohesive entity. This would necessitate a number of radical changes, not only in the political and economic structure of the country but also in the psychology of the people.

Nigerians have lived through series of administrations underdifferent governments, and the question still arises, ‘is Nigeria a nation at all?’ A critical look at what the government calls reform reveals a personally instituted concept of governance, filling the seats of power with those they believe to be their kin, rather than have professionals in the positions of merit, and a breed of people typified by their integrity of heart, ingrained in the trainings and qualifications they have received in the course of service to the nation. The increasing number of those who are not gainfully employed or adequately educated in the country, remain preys as political tools of violence as it has been seen in the history of violence occurring in the country over a period of time. The country has depended much on oil as its major source of revenue for years, however, the current administration also fails to recognize that the future of the country may very well depend on the economy of its people(the youths), which is possibly the only untapped, ill harnessed, most lucrative resource of the country. If it remains this way in the next ten years, putting into consideration the effect of increased poverty, lack of employment, poor educational system, it is unpredictable what the result will be. The table below shows the statistical data of the rate of unemployment and the population rate from 2006 to 2011 in Nigeria. It is the result of a survey carried out by the National Bureau of Statistics and shows that persons aged 0-14 years constituted 39.6%, those aged between 15-64 (the economically active population), constituted 56.3%, while those aged 65 years and above constituted 4.2%. Analysis of employment data for the past 5 years show that the rate of new entrants into the labour market has not been uniform in the past five years.

  • The rate was on the increase from 2007 to 2009 but declined significantly from 2009 to 2010. The rate increased again from 2010 to 2011. Within the five year period, there has been an average of about 1.8 million new entrants into the active labour market per year.
  •  Governments, or local leaders, who are generally not held accountable for how much money is spent, and how education systems are managed,
  • Sufficiency attitude – What is provided for the poor is good enough
  • Inadequate pro-poor infrastructure or support systems this makes it difficult to implement successful poverty eradication interventions
  • A lack of systematic tracking of pro-poor interventions –  in this way, it is extremely difficult to know if the activities and programmes implemented have had any impact at all. Nigeria cannot combat the ills of the society just by raising its budget; there should be a strategic systematic approach to education that would bridge the gap between its service delivery and its effectiveness in the country.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Education in Nigeria is devoid of the element crucial to averting the surging rate of unemployment in the country, therefore the breeding of psychological dependence on direct access to money. Entrepreneurial development through education will advance the economy of the nation; much credence should be given to it and ingrained with focus on profitable personal development. Unemployment prevails in the country, hence, the growth of violence, poverty and segregation amongst citizens, because the educational system itself fails to empower the ones passing through it. This should be the core message of the evolving educational policy of Nigeria which is devoid of a system of education that emphasizes on the need to culture the country’s young through the knowledge of rudimentary entrepreneurial development, common cultural heritage, and identification of exploitable strengths of structures, systems and cultures of others.

Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine Entrepreneurial   Education as a tool for Reducing unemployment in Nigeria ( A case study of Federal Ministry of Labour Abuja)

Objectively, the study tends to:

i.      identify skills that can make Nigerian graduates entrepreneurs to reduce unemployment rate.

ii.      examine the benefits of entrepreneurial education among Nigerian graduates.

iii.       describe the challenges faced by Nigerian graduates in entrepreneurial education.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were answered t guide the study.

i.         What are the skills that can make Nigerian graduates entrepreneurs to reduce unemployment rate?

ii.         What are the benefits of entrepreneurial education to Nigerian graduates?

iii.          What are the challenges faced by Nigerian graduates in entrepreneurial education?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The focus of this study brings to the fore the crucial need for entrepreneurial education in Nigeria, putting more consideration on the educational system, strategies and its eventual social developmental effect in the society. The study highlights the problems of the level of education in the country and its equivalence to level of poverty in the society by virtue of lack of employment or knowledge of how to startup businesses. One of the MDG goals highlights education as a critical factor for reducing poverty and dependency in developed nations. Therefore, this thesis contributes to knowledge by identifying what is important to the economy, which is qualitative education focused on the needs of the economy per time, rather than the resolution of the United Nations to increase budgetary details or increasing the number of people that go through school. This is not the first paper on entrepreneurial education; however, it is the first to do a comparative study on what is being implemented by different universities to see its effectiveness in order to ascertain the strategy which would eventually help for the Nigerian economy in truly eradicating unemployment in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study is specifically limited to Entrepreneurial   Education as a tool for Reducing unemployment in Nigeria .

COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis: The Nigerian Experience and Structural Causes

Abstract

The economic downturn in Nigeria was triggered by a combination of declining oil price and spillovers from the Covid-19 outbreak, which not only led to a fall in the demand for oil products but also stopped economic activities from taking place when social distancing policies were enforced. The government responded to the crisis by providing financial assistance to businesses, not to households, that were affected by the outbreak. The monetary authority adopted accommodative monetary policies and offered a targeted 3.5trillion loan support to some sectors. These efforts should have prevented the economic crisis from occurring but it didn’t. Economic agents refused to engage in economic activities for fear of contracting the Covid-19 disease that was spreading very fast at the time. In this paper, I analyse the Covid-19 spillovers to Nigeria and the structural weaknesses in Nigeria’s infrastructure that helped bring on the current economic crisis and discuss prospects for reform.

COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis
KEYWORDS
  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis in Nigeria
  • The Nigerian Experience and Structural Causes
  • Nigeria, Covid-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, outbreak, pandemic, financial crisis, global recession, public health, spillovers, monetary policy, fiscal policy, liquidity provision, Central banks.

Impact of COVID-19 on Education for Vulnerable Children A Study Of Almajiri

Impact of COVID-19 on Education for Vulnerable Children A Study Of Almajiri

INTRODUCTION

Generations upon generations, there is no end to the sight of young children of school age roaming the streets in a quest for survival. As an age-old tradition, these kids are popularly called ‘Almajiri’ – children from poor homes usually sent to Islamic boarding schools. Formal education remains a far cry for thousands of these children.

Put into perspective, Nigeria has about 13.2 million out of school children. In West Africa, Nigeria accounts for 45 per cent of out-of-school children. 69 per cent of the out-of-school in Nigeria are from Northern Nigeria, with 60 per cent of them comprising of girls. The number of out-of-school children in Nigeria has increased from 10.5 million in 2010 to 13.2 million in 2015. Some of the contributive factors to this issue is the protracted violent conflict in Northeast Nigeria. The destruction of schools by insurgents, forced displacement, and the volatile nature of the region has grossly impacted accessibility to primary education in the area.

Over the years, the Almajiri programme has co-existed alongside the formal school system; it has failed to be subsumed into the formal education sector. For instance, Nigeria’s former president, Goodluck Jonathan, reportedly spent about N15 billion in building Almajiri schools in an effort to integrate basic education into the almajiri system. There have been reports that are the structures built for the purpose have either been used for conventional education or lay waste because its pupils have gone back to the old ways of street begging.

Conflict experts hold that having vulnerable children in cities across a nation that is fighting an ideological war is a terrible risk. For instance, it has been widely reiterated that the reason Boko Haram insurgents has continued to wage war against the Nigerian state is as a result of a robust recruitment source. The almajiri system has created a mass of vulnerable younglings who are susceptible to the antics of conflict promoters upon the promise of material reward or psycho-social brainwashing.

The deportation of the almajiri children in the middle of the Coronavirus pandemic has cast more light in the dark. For the many years the almajiri system has existed, it has been perceived by many as constituting public nuisance. In the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, where free movements have been banned and social distancing greatly promoted, the almajiri way of life is greatly threatened. Hundreds of almajiri children have been deported from across different states of the federation; in a bid to flatten the spread of the Coronavirus. In some cases, some of them have tested positive to COVID-19. Nigeria’s House of Representatives has also called on the Federal government to stop state governments from repatriating almajiri children.

Beyond COVID-19, the almajiri system requires collective action. This should involve both the federal and state governments to map out a holistic policy action to address the issues around almajiri system. Also, traditional and religious institutions have a vital role to play, considering that the practice is deeply rooted in cultural and religious sentiments. Governmental actions can only provide the capacity for reforms; it will require the collaborations of relevant stakeholders, including the Northern elites, for meaningful impact to be achieved and sustainability guaranteed. Without a comprehensive policy initiative, the almajiri children remain the evidence of dearth of social security for citizens of the country.

The Effect of COVID-19 on Almajiri Educational System In Nigeria 

StrengthsWeaknesses
Unwavering commitment to the students they serve who are fighting their way out of poverty.Good relationship with parents through the Parents-Teachers-Association (PTA).Partnership with the local community.Poor digital literacy of School Owners/Leaders and Teachers.Poor financial state (little or on cash reserves) to meet up with funding requirements for salaries, fixed costs, infrastructure (smart phones, data, etc.), communications, and other expenses for remote teaching.Poor (incomplete or not up-to-date) data of parents.Lack of motivation of teachers to take up remote teaching due to non-payment of salaries and job insecurity.

The Situations Of Almajiri Educational System In COVID-19 Pandemic

OpportunitiesThreats
The free Radio & TV school options provided by the Lagos State Ministry of Education.Low-Tech tools that can be deployed easily e.g. WhatsApp, FacebookLite, etc.Free and easy-to-use Tech tools that can be deployed e.g. Google Classroom, Edmodo, Classdojo, etc.Learning resources (printed packets) that children can use at homeLimited or zero access to devices or hardware to sustain online learningHigh illiteracy (basic & digital) rates and poverty levels of most parents leading to them not willing to embrace new solutions e.g. WhatsApp classesPoor infrastructure to support remote learning in most low-income communities (e.g. power, internet access, etc.)Child protection & safeguarding risks given reduced access to students and increased household vulnerabilities.Some learners will never return to the classroom.Financial survival of the school due to loss of revenue from school fees due to the impact of the crisis on parents income.No educational subsidies, stimulus packages or concessional loans available by government. For instance, the Targeted Credit Facility for COVID-19 Relief for Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) by the Central Bank of Nigeria and implemented by NIRSAL MFB does not have Education listed as a priority sector.

Generations upon generations, there is no end to the sight of young children of school age roaming the streets in a quest for survival. As an age-old tradition, these kids are popularly called ‘Almajiri’ – children from poor homes usually sent to Islamic boarding schools. Formal education remains a far cry for thousands of these children.

Put into perspective, Nigeria has about 13.2 million out of school children. In West Africa, Nigeria accounts for 45 per cent of out-of-school children. 69 per cent of the out-of-school in Nigeria are from Northern Nigeria, with 60 per cent of them comprising of girls. The number of out-of-school children in Nigeria has increased from 10.5 million in 2010 to 13.2 million in 2015. Some of the contributive factors to this issue is the protracted violent conflict in Northeast Nigeria. The destruction of schools by insurgents, forced displacement, and the volatile nature of the region has grossly impacted accessibility to primary education in the area.

Over the years, the Almajiri programme has co-existed alongside the formal school system; it has failed to be subsumed into the formal education sector. For instance, Nigeria’s former president, Goodluck Jonathan, reportedly spent about N15 billion in building Almajiri schools in an effort to integrate basic education into the almajiri system. There have been reports that are the structures built for the purpose have either been used for conventional education or lay waste because its pupils have gone back to the old ways of street begging.

Conflict experts hold that having vulnerable children in cities across a nation that is fighting an ideological war is a terrible risk. For instance, it has been widely reiterated that the reason Boko Haram insurgents has continued to wage war against the Nigerian state is as a result of a robust recruitment source. The almajiri system has created a mass of vulnerable younglings who are susceptible to the antics of conflict promoters upon the promise of material reward or psycho-social brainwashing.

The deportation of the almajiri children in the middle of the Coronavirus pandemic has cast more light in the dark. For the many years the almajiri system has existed, it has been perceived by many as constituting public nuisance. In the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, where free movements have been banned and social distancing greatly promoted, the almajiri way of life is greatly threatened. Hundreds of almajiri children have been deported from across different states of the federation; in a bid to flatten the spread of the Coronavirus. In some cases, some of them have tested positive to COVID-19. Nigeria’s House of Representatives has also called on the Federal government to stop state governments from repatriating almajiri children.

The deportation of the almajiri children in the middle of the Coronavirus pandemic has cast more light in the dark.

Beyond COVID-19, the almajiri system requires collective action. This should involve both the federal and state governments to map out a holistic policy action to address the issues around almajiri system. Also, traditional and religious institutions have a vital role to play, considering that the practice is deeply rooted in cultural and religious sentiments. Governmental actions can only provide the capacity for reforms; it will require the collaborations of relevant stakeholders, including the Northern elites, for meaningful impact to be achieved and sustainability guaranteed. Without a comprehensive policy initiative, the almajiri children remain the evidence of dearth of social security for citizens of the country.

IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES IN HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSTMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UTH, UYO, AKWAIBOM)

IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES IN HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSTMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UTH, UYO, AKWAIBOM)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
The business of risk adjustment has come a long way since the publication of the Academy’s “Monograph Number One” with the title, “Health Risk Assessment and Health Risk Adjustment—Crucial Elements in Effective Health Care Reform” in May 1993. Less than ten years later, we had hospital inpatient diagnosis-based approaches, such as the model used by the Market Stabilization Pool for small group and individual coverage in NYS in conjunction with mandated community rating. The PIP-DCG approach for Medicare + Choice, also inpatient only, soon followed.
Risk adjustment models have included variables such as demographic (i.e. age and gender) and clinical markers based either on ICD-9 diagnosis codes and/or pharmacy codes such as the National Drug Codes (NDCs).
Literature points to other variables such as geography, Body Mass Index (BMI), education, and income that also explain the variation in healthcare cost – but have hitherto not been included in risk adjustment programs mainly because such variables are not typically found in claim data. If these nontraditional variables explain meaningful variation in cost beyond traditional risk adjustment models – then this may provide incentives for issuers to select certain members. If such incentives lead to selection that affects the financial performance of issuers –
then the policy goals of the risk adjustment program will be undermined. Recognizing the importance of fortifying risk adjustment programs against selection based on nontraditional variables, the Society of Actuaries’ Health Section sponsored an in-depth study into the relationship of nontraditional variables with health costs.
This report presents the results of this study. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data in this research. Specific details concerning the data and preparation can be found in Section 3.2. This data is unique in that it includes a large number of individual characteristics (from BMI to whether a person has difficulty enjoying hobbies) together with healthcare claim data. There are limitations to the use of MEPS data, and these limitations are discussed further in Section 4. The results of this research demonstrate that it is important to adjust the traditional risk adjustment model in order to recognize nontraditional variables. The report develops a new measure (Loss Ratio Advantage or LRA) to help quantify the potential of a nontraditional variable to affect a risk adjustment program. With the help of this measure, the report compares the importance of over thirty variables that were systematically narrowed down from a list of  Risk adjustment of any kind is inherently imperfect, the complexity and sophistication of risk adjustment models
has increased significantly in the past couple decades. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), risk adjustment will be required for non-grandfathered commercial small group and individual coverage both inside
and outside Exchanges.Using a structured and scientific approach, the researcher has examined a long list of non-traditional drivers of health cost, chosen the most relevant ones, and tested their effect on bottom-line medical cost when included in the traditional risk adjustment formula.

1.3 Objectives of the study
1. To determine the relationshipbetween non-traditional variables and health care risk adjustment in Nigeria.
2. To ascertain the impact of non-traditional variables on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria.

1.4 Research questions
1. Is there a relationship between non-traditional variables and health care risk adjustment in Nigeria?
2. Does non-traditional variables significantly impacts on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria?

1.5 Research hypotheses
Ho: There is no relationship between non-traditional variables and health care risk adjustment in Nigeria.
Hi: There is a relationship between non-traditional variables and health care risk adjustment in Nigeria
Ho: Non-traditional variables have no significant impact on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria.
Hi:Non-traditional variables significantly impacts on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the study
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes the mechanism of risk adjustment in commercial small group and individual markets in order to further the policy goals of premium stabilization, mitigating incentives for issuers of healthcare coverage policies (issuers) to avoid unhealthy members, and to remove any advantages or disadvantages for plans inside healthcare exchanges compared to plans outside of such exchanges. The importance of risk adjustment to these policy goals cannot be overemphasized, and details such as the variables that are included in the risk assessment formula affect the extent to which the program is successful in meeting
these goals.

1.7 Scope of the study
The study focuses on the impact of non-traditional variables in health care risk adjustment in Nigeria, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Uyo Local Government Area of AkwaIbom state was used as the case study.

1.8 Limitations of the study
This study has some limitations most especially in the area of data collection. Financial constraints as well as time available for the completion of the study are among other factors that would limit the scope of the study.

1.9 Definition of terms
Health Care:The organized provision of medical care to individuals or a community.
Non-traditional:Not conforming to or in accord with tradition.
Risk Adjustment:A concept that refines an investment’s return by measuring how much risk is involved in producing that return.

REFERENCES
Adler, N., & Newman, K. (2002). Socioeconomic disparities in health: Pathways and policies. Health Affairs, 21(2). AHRQ. (2012). MEPS HC-138 2010 Full Year Consolidated Data File. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Backlund, E., Sorlie, P., & Johnson, N. (1999). Comparison of the relationships of education and income with mortality: The national longitudinal mortality study. Social Science and Medicine, 49(10), 1373–1384.
Berkman, L. F., & Glass, T. (2000). Social integration, social networks,social support, and health. NY: Oxford University Press.
Catalano, R., &Serxner, S. (1992). The effect of ambient threats to employment on low birth weight.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33(4).363-377.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among undergraduate student

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

In December, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, who were later proven to be caused by a novel coronavirus (named as “2019-nCoV”), emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. By January 30, 2020, 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 prov- inces and cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. Twenty-eight confirmed cases aged from 1 month to 17 years had been reported in China.

Coronavirus (CoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Nidovirales order. CoVs are divided into four genera: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronavirus. α- and β-coronaviruses only infect mammals, whereas γ- and δ-coronaviruses mainly infect birds, with a few infecting mammals. Human CoVs include α-coronaviruses (229E and NL63), β-coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the β-coronavirus genus, which includes bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat- SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV.

Current studies have revealed that 2019-nCoV may originate from wild animals, but the exact origin remains unclear.

2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported.

For standardizing the prevention and treament of 2019- nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ com- mittee to formulate this consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections.

Based on the current epidemiological data, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections ranges from 1 to 14 days, mostly ranging from 3 to 7 days. Current reported data of pediatric cases revealed that the age of disease onset ranged from 1.5 months to 17 years, most of whom had a close contact with infected cases or were family cluster cases. Infected children might appear asymptomatic or present with fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and few have upper respiratory symptoms including nasal congestion and running nose; some patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

Most infected children have mild clinical manifestations. They have no fever or symptoms of pneumonia with a good prognosis. Most of them recover within 1–2 weeks after disease onset. Few may progress to lower respiratory infections. No newborns delivered by 2019-nCoV infected mothers have been detected positive; and no newborn cases have been reported yet. It should be noted that clinical manifestations in pediatric patients should be further defined after collecting more pediat- ric case data. Furthermore, the number of confirmed infected cases will increase after a wide use of pathogen analysis.

Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respira- tory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumo- nia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis. This study seeks to examine the knowledge and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university.

1.2 statement of problem

Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth.

Rural dwellers in West Africa are at risk of coronavirus because of proximity to animal reservoir, open construction of African villages, the practice of drying grains by road sides or outside homes and unprotected grain storage within homes. All these factors are known to facilitate increased rodent-man contact or contamination of food sources by infected rodent secretions.

For a highly contagious disease with  symptoms and signs that are similar to other endemic diseases, the creation of awareness amongst community members is very important in endemic areas. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments.

This study therefore, set out to assess the level of knowledge of coronavirus among students of Abia state university. Information gathered from this study will serve as a basis for enlightenment of the community on the causes, modes of transmission and more importantly, prevention of the disease.

1.3 Objective of the study

The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. Specifically this study therefore, sought to:

  • Determine the awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university.
  • Ascertain the knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus
  • Determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways.  COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.

  • This study will impact the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus.

1.5 Research Question

  • The study attempt to answer the following research questions
  • What is the level of awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university?
  • What is the level of knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus?
  • What is the  preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university?

1.6 Hypothesis of the study

  • The following hypothesis were formulated and tested
  • Ho: there is no significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables
  • H1: there is significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables

1.7 Scope/Limitation Of Study

  • This study seeks to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. It is therefore delimited to students of Abia state university and everyone within the university community
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