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The Effect of COVID-19 on Almajiri Educational System In Nigeria

The Effect of COVID-19 on Almajiri Educational System In Nigeria 

INTRODUCTION

Generations upon generations, there is no end to the sight of young children of school age roaming the streets in a quest for survival. As an age-old tradition, these kids are popularly called ‘Almajiri’ – children from poor homes usually sent to Islamic boarding schools. Formal education remains a far cry for thousands of these children.

Put into perspective, Nigeria has about 13.2 million out of school children. In West Africa, Nigeria accounts for 45 per cent of out-of-school children. 69 per cent of the out-of-school in Nigeria are from Northern Nigeria, with 60 per cent of them comprising of girls. The number of out-of-school children in Nigeria has increased from 10.5 million in 2010 to 13.2 million in 2015. Some of the contributive factors to this issue is the protracted violent conflict in Northeast Nigeria. The destruction of schools by insurgents, forced displacement, and the volatile nature of the region has grossly impacted accessibility to primary education in the area.

Over the years, the Almajiri programme has co-existed alongside the formal school system; it has failed to be subsumed into the formal education sector. For instance, Nigeria’s former president, Goodluck Jonathan, reportedly spent about N15 billion in building Almajiri schools in an effort to integrate basic education into the almajiri system. There have been reports that are the structures built for the purpose have either been used for conventional education or lay waste because its pupils have gone back to the old ways of street begging.

Conflict experts hold that having vulnerable children in cities across a nation that is fighting an ideological war is a terrible risk. For instance, it has been widely reiterated that the reason Boko Haram insurgents has continued to wage war against the Nigerian state is as a result of a robust recruitment source. The almajiri system has created a mass of vulnerable younglings who are susceptible to the antics of conflict promoters upon the promise of material reward or psycho-social brainwashing.

The deportation of the almajiri children in the middle of the Coronavirus pandemic has cast more light in the dark. For the many years the almajiri system has existed, it has been perceived by many as constituting public nuisance. In the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, where free movements have been banned and social distancing greatly promoted, the almajiri way of life is greatly threatened. Hundreds of almajiri children have been deported from across different states of the federation; in a bid to flatten the spread of the Coronavirus. In some cases, some of them have tested positive to COVID-19. Nigeria’s House of Representatives has also called on the Federal government to stop state governments from repatriating almajiri children.

Beyond COVID-19, the almajiri system requires collective action. This should involve both the federal and state governments to map out a holistic policy action to address the issues around almajiri system. Also, traditional and religious institutions have a vital role to play, considering that the practice is deeply rooted in cultural and religious sentiments. Governmental actions can only provide the capacity for reforms; it will require the collaborations of relevant stakeholders, including the Northern elites, for meaningful impact to be achieved and sustainability guaranteed. Without a comprehensive policy initiative, the almajiri children remain the evidence of dearth of social security for citizens of the country.

IMPACT OF FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT ON JOURNALISM PRACTICE: A STUDY OF JOURNALISM PRACTICE IN UYO COMMUNITY

Abstract

This project on ― impact of Freedom of Information Act: A study of journalism practices in Uyo community – from January to June, is aimed at finding out how Freedom of Information Act impact positively on the life of practicing journalists in Uyo community. In carrying out the study the researcher used survey design method, while questionnaire was the instrument of the study. Simple tables and percentages were used in analyzing and presenting the data collected. The researcher made some recommendations to  support that Freedom of Information Act encourage investigative journalism, balance reporting, openness and transparency in the decision making process which will improve citizens trust in government action. The researcher also made few numbers of suggestions for further studies which will continue to inform people about the impact this topic (Freedom of Information Act) has on our society. And from the conclusion drawn from the questionnaire tables, it is shown that Freedom of Information Act impact positively on the life of working journalists in Uyo community and strengthens the constitutional guarantee of freedom to receive and impact information and ideas without any hindrance. Again, the respondents proved that Freedom of Information Act empower the professionalism and the ethics of journalism.

Contents

Socio-Economic Status And Its Impact On Protest Participation In Nigeria. A Study of ENDSARS Protest

Abstract

In  recent  years,  protest  activities  happened  frequently  in  Nigeria.  These  protests  have  had  profound consequences and changed the landscape of  Nigerian politics. Therefore, it is important to know who protests  and  the brain  behind these  protest.  This  paper  aims  to  answer  two  questions.  First,  what  kind  of people (according to their Socio-Economic Status, SES) is more likely to participate in protest? Second, how  does  Socio-Economic Status influence  protest  participation with a special references to #EndSars protest in Nigeria?  The  hypotheses for this study  are  drawn  from  grievance  theories, resources  model  and  cultural  change  theory.  We  hypothesize  that  in  Nigeria EndSars protest,  people  with  higher  Socio-Economic Status tend  to  join  and influences others in the  protest.  The  mechanisms  are  material  condition,  civic  skills,  and  the  value  of  post-materialism. Empirically, taking advantage of the World Values Survey 2010−2012, we use confirmatory factor  analysis  to  construct  an  indicator  of  Socio-Economic Status including  education,  income,  and  class.  Then,  we conduct  structural  equation  modeling  to  test  the  mechanisms  through  which  Socio-Economic Status  exerts  influences. We find that in Nigeria, people with higher Socio-Economic Status are more likely to protest and influences the poor to join in the ENDSARS protest as well. Moreover, civic skills are the most important mechanisms. Material condition also has a positive effect. Although the value of post-materialism can  influence protest participation, whether people hold this value is unrelated to their Socio-Economic Status.

Contents

OBSTACLES TO THE UNITED NATIONS AS A COLLECTIVE SECURITY MECHANISM DURING THE IRAQ WAR, 2002-2005

OBSTACLES TO THE UNITED NATIONS AS A COLLECTIVE SECURITY MECHANISM DURING THE IRAQ WAR, 2002-2005

ABSTRACT

This study looks at the obstacles of the UN as a Collective Security mechanism with reference to the 2002-2005 Iraq war. It looks at the concept of collective security as a technical term in the field of international relations and how it contributes to international peace and security. The UN played a role that was totally against its underlying principles because a Collective Security mechanism always prohibits the use of force or in one word war. The study gives a strong discussion on the obstacles that led to the war in Iraq and views on how such can be avoided in the future. The UN used force, an act that is considered antithetical to a Collective Security mechanism. Those obstacles that laid the impetus which later conglomerated and culminated to the UN Iraq war forms the focus of this study

The impact of agricultural extension in poverty reduction

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of agricultural extension in poverty reduction. The study focuses on the incidence of poverty, theoretical background of agriculture extension, and some significant factors that could improve the efficiency of agricultural extension. It is evident that most of the poverty alleviation policies in Nigeria  are directed towards agriculture in rural areas, as vast human resources in Nigeria  are under the plow. To meet the needs of the growing population, Nigeria  needs to adopt new techniques/methods for rapid agricultural development. Besides, this study also prescribes some necessary steps to develop agricultural extension in order to increase agricultural production and eventually to minimize the high level of poverty in Nigeria.

Contents

Measurements of scattered radiation in an x-ray room

Abstract


During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated.

Contents

Public service reforms and transparency in Nigeria: An evaluation of the Buhari administration

Abstract

Successive Nigerian administrations have pursued one variant of reform or another in the federal civil service since the country’s attainment of political independence. Yet, the federal civil service, as an essential organ of the executive arm of the government, still requires more reforms. The problems that instigated the introduction of a series of reforms in the federal civil service in 1999 consequent upon the inauguration of the democratic government included erosion of public service ethics, ageing workforce, poor succession planning, inappropriate organisational structures, unproductive work operations, lack of competent leadership, etc. However, these problems are currently the same problems facing the federal civil service after 16 years of implementation of reforms by the government of Peoples’Democratic Party (PDP). However, the emergence of a new government with its populist and progressive policy thrust, the rising awareness among civil servants, the global obligation of the Nigerian government to public service reforms, the proven efficacy of the ballot as an instrument for effecting change of government, coupled with the readily available support of donor agencies, which together, have the prospects of creating the right political atmosphere for the implementation of requisite reforms in the Nigerian federal civil service with utmost efficiency and likelihood of success.

Contents

PUBLIC RELATIONS IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY A Study of Ilaje Communities

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Public relations describes any form of communication which is aimed at bringing about goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. As a planned communication, it concerns every organization, whether commercial or noncommercial, government inclusive. This is because, every organization needs to create a favourable image for itself before its internal and external publics for successful operation (Asemah, 2011).

Modern public relations (PR) practices first became popular in the United States in the early 1920s with the publication of Edward Bernays’s influential text (Nessmann, 1995) entitled ‘The Crystallization of Public Opinion’. Since then, the practice and management of public relations became a global enterprise (Sriramesh and Verčič, 2002; Culbertson et. al, 1996) that cannot be ignored. Within a short period, public relations gained popularity not only in the United States but also amongst foreign governments (Kunczic, 2003) and multinational firms (Olasky, 1987; Hutton et. al, 2001; Wakefield, 2000; Sriramesh, 1996). Today, public relations are practiced in most countries around the world and more importantly in non-western developing countries (Al-Enad, 1990).

Contrary to Ajala (1993) and many other authors that public relations practice began in Nigeria during World War II, modern public relations practices began in Abeokuta, Nigeria on December 3, 1859, when the Christian Missionary Society (CMS) published the “Iwe Irohin” (meaning news journal), Nigeria’s first newspaper (Salawu, 2004a). The trigger for the creation of this newspaper is grounded in the desire by church missioners to inform parishioners of weekly Christian activities within the church.

This newspaper performed the first public relations function by providing up to date information concerning missionary activities as well as socio-economic and political activities affecting Anglican parishioners, Abeokuta indigenes, the settlers (Creoles) and Europeans at large. Our position is in consonance with Bates (2006). While tracing the history of public relations, Bates (2006) asserted that the development of modern PR began with the use of oratory, newspapers, meetings, committees, pamphlets, and correspondence by rebelling American colonies against England to win people to their cause”. The Iwe Iroyin, the first PR medium in Nigeria included news about colonial administration, some foreign affairs, advertisements and public announcements (Salawu, 2004b). Furthermore, the Iwe Iroyin laid the foundation of modern classified publicity, public advocacy and public announcements on births and deaths (Oduntan, 2005) in Nigeria.

Nigeria is miles ahead of a number of advanced industrialized countries when it comes to the professionalization of public relations. Our conviction is predicated on two arguments. First, unlike the Chartered Institute of Public Relations London, which got its professional charter in 2004, public relations practices had since 1990 been recognized by the successive governments in Nigeria as a professional discipline. The Nigeria Institute of Public Relations (NIPR) got the professional charter, which recognized PR practices as a professional discipline in 1990 (Molleda and Alhassan, 2005). The charter limited the practice of public relations in Nigeria exclusively to persons registered by NIPR.

Besides, it was established far ahead of many European and North American public relations institutes. The popularity enjoyed by the professionalization of PR practices in Nigeria has encouraged many Nigerian universities and polytechnics to develop and run academic and professional degrees in this discipline (especially at postgraduate level).

Conservatively, there are at least 20 higher institutions of learning in Nigeria offering specialist degree programs in public relations (Otubanjo and Amujo, 2009).

Public relations has contributed greatly to the growth and development of Nigeria through all its phases of growth.

HOW TO PRESENT A GOOD AND ACCEPTABLE RESEARCH PROJECT

Abstract

This guide is intended to help you produce a good final year project report. It gives advice on how to gather relevant material, how to organize it into a suitable form and how to then turn it into a written project report or dissertation. It also describes the conventions that should govern the structure of the report or dissertation, and suggests some descriptive devices that you can use to make it more effective.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Project writing is compulsory and an integral part of the B.Sc. (Ed) programme and should be taken seriously like any other compulsory courses. Failure to write or complete project within the stipulated time will automatically lead to the non-completion of the degree programme. Towards ensuring that students successfully complete their original essay, the guideline should be adhered to; failure to adhere to the guidelines may result in the rejection of the project. Students are also expected to adhere to the comments of their supervisors.

Students are expected to demonstrate originality of thought, independent research skills, intense critical analysis and evaluation of phenomena and to come out with new ideas.

2.0  APPROVAL OF PROJECT TOPIC

After the students have been assigned supervisors, each student is required to submit at least three researchable topics to the assigned supervisor, who is to give approval. The supervisor has a right to modify the submitted topic(s) where necessary. Therefore, the student submits his/her proposal on the approved topic to his/her supervisor. The proposal should not be more than five pages and should contain the following.

2.1 Background to the study

This sub-section generally gives the background information to what informed the research or why the research is being carried out.

It equally examines what is wrong with the existing political phenomenon, which invariably informs the interest in the research.

The contributions of the relevant scholars and philosophers, as well as other social scientists on the subject are generally examined pointing out the appearing inherent problems.

2.2 Statement of the problem

This part will examine the fact that despite the existing policies, laws or attempts to solve certain problems or socio-politics or economic problems, the problems still persist. This part should further examine question whether, is it the policies or laws, among others, are inadequate or the problem is with its implementation, or other identifiable causes. The statement of the problem should be able to identify the gap that the study seeks to fill.

2.3 Aims and objectives

You should state in clear terms the aim(s) of the study and in numbered paragraphs the specific objectives of the study.

2.4 Research questions

This involved transforming the research objectives into interrogative statements. Data is generated towards solving these research questions. Such data should achieve the research objectives. The research questions like the research objectives should

(I) Start with opening statement/preamble

(II) Itemize the questions in sub-sections and numbered in Arabic numerals.

2.5 Research hypothesis

The hypothesis is used to examine the relationship between variable. It is a statement assuming certain relationship between two or more variable. The assumption would therefore be tested using data generated by the study before confirming or disconfirming same. The researcher makes clear and unambiguous statements on the aspect of the relationship between the stated variables that the study intends to investigate. The hypothesis should be in line with the research problem already stated. Not that it is only the null hypothesis that should be stated to line with the current trend in hypothesis formulation. Note: Your formulated hypothesis should not be less or more than three.

2.6 Research method

It is imperative that you state the method you intend to adopt in carrying out this research. It is the most critical aspect of your project aside the statement of problem. You should therefore indicate how you intend to achieve the stated objectives and the procedure (step by step) to be used in carrying out the research.

Generally, there are two sources of information – primary and secondary. Primary sources are questionnaires, interviews, observations, experimentation and so on. Secondary sources are textbooks, journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings, newspapers and magazines, as well as materials sourced from the internet.

Those proposing to use questionnaires should agree with their supervisors on the form and content of the questionnaires. The rules guiding the writing of questionnaire should be strictly adhered to. The questions should be constructed in such a way as to achieve specific research objectives. The questions should be properly scaled. For those intending to use interview, formulation of interview questions and identification of the targeted groups are essential issues to be borne in mind, among others. Interview questions should be structured in a way to avoid leading questions and other interview rules should also be observed.

In either case, supervisors should determine the suitability or otherwise of the use of interview or questionnaire, having regard to the approved topic and the probative value of the information to be generated through such means.

Students should bear in mind that the use of invalid or unapproved method in their research might result in the invalidation of the project or the research outcome, thus necessitating the affected student to redo the project.

2.7 Significance of study

This is the area where you discuss the economic importance of your research I.e. justification for carrying out your research. Where your research will add nothing or on fact adds nothing to existing knowledge, improve the existing human conditions or policies on completion. It is unnecessary carrying out the research; new topic should be submitted for the long essay.

2.8 Scope/delimitation

Due to certain restrictions, the researcher might deliberately eliminate some aspects (modify the extent) of the research work. This sub-section therefore enables him/her to clearly state the extent to which he/she intends to go in achieving the research objectives.

Delimiting factors might include the time frame, finances, research instruments, logistics, government policies, and so on.

2.9 Organization of study

This is where you divide your work into chapters and in summary form – in one or two sentences, indicate what you intend to discuss. The project should be developed into chapters which should not be more than five, with each chapter further subdivided into sections and sub-sections. This will facilitate the development of a number of key ideas.

3.0 Composition Of The Project

3.1 student’s project should be structured according to the following pattern;

(I) Preliminaries and Contents Arrangements

The project shall contain all or some of the following materials arranged in the following order.

(a) Title

(b) Certification page: example:

This is to certify that the research work for this project and its subsequent preparation were carried out by (name of candidate & matric number) under the following supervision.

______________________                                                __________________________

Name of supervisor.                                                             Signature & Date

________________________                                                __________________________

Name of Head of Dept.                                                        Signature & Date

___________________________                                          __________________________

Name of External Examiner                                                 Signature & Date

(c) Dedication

(d) Acknowledgement

(e) Table of content

(f) Figure and tables

(g) Abbreviations

(h) Abstract–Not more than 500 words

(I) Main body of project (This will usually be chapter 1-4)

(j) summary, conclusion and recommendations (this will usually be the 5th chapter)

(k) List of References and Bibliography

3.2   ABSTRACT

The abstract shall conform to the following format;

(I) Introduction/objective: A brief statement of what the research is about, specific objectives envisage and contribution to knowledge.

(II) Hypotheses:  Formulated hypotheses and their relationship with the research objectives.

(iii) Method : Where the questionnaire or the interview method was used, this should indicate how this was done.

(iv) Findings/result:  Stating of specific findings.

(V) Implications: Implications of findings (if any or where applicable I.e. Implications for the implementation of the research findings as it affects the various bodies and those likely to benefit from the research findings).

(vi) Conclusion.

3.3 LENGTH OF THE PROJECT

The long essay should in the maximum not be more than 80 pages in length or the word equivalent, excluding references/bibliography.

3.4 TYPOGRAPHY AND FONT

The standard 12-point should be used for the main text. The usually typeface is the Times New Roman and the main text should be justified to ensure uniformity in the typing style.

3.5 SPACING

Main text should be the Double spacing and 1.5 should be the reference/bibliography.

3.6 MARGINS

Necessary margins should be provided to accumulate binding without infringing on the text, 1-inch margins at top, bottom, and sides should be provided.

3.7 ELLIPSE

An ellipse is a series of three points with spacing between them (…) inserted into quotation to indicate the omission of material from the original quotation. Thus, where a part or parts of a quotation are left out, such omitted part(s) must be indicated by three dots (…) only, no matter how long the omitted are, to indicate that something from the original text has been omitted. Students who fail to abide by the above style may have their projects rejected or lose marks in the assessment of the same.

4.0 PLAGIARISM

You should ensure that your project do not contain plagiarized material(s) in any form. Plagiarism is a serious academic fraud which carries grave consequences.

You must know what plagiarism is and that it can be omitted in various ways. Generally, plagiarism is when you present another person’s ideas or work as your own. To avoid plagiarism all sources of materials used, including those sourced from the Internet must be clearly indicated and properly cited. Words that are not your own must be clearly stated so indicate by putting the words in quotation marks and proper reference given for their source. Not acknowledging quotations taken from other people’s work or adaptation of such quotations or other people’s work without proper acknowledgement and reference to the source.

You must also not engage in “self-plagiarism” by presenting ideas or words contained in a work previously done by you and which have been submitted for an award or a credit in the completion of a course unit or academic program.

4.1 USING OLD REFERENCES NOT MORE THA

Avoiding using old references that is more than 10years

4.2 ASSERTIONS

Students must avoid making general assertions or statements in their projects. Any assertions made in your project must be substantiated, thus, students should desist from expressing views not substantiated by credible academic or references otherwise there’s be no credit.

5.0 APPROVED STRUCTURE OF PROJECT

Chapter One: Introduction

Chapter Two: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three: Research method

Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations.

Note: All calculations of data analysis should be taken to the appendix page(s) of the project including the copy of the questionnaire.

6.0  STYLE OF CITATIONS AND REFERENCES

The current American Psychological Association (APA) style should be adopted by students in their projects. This is just a guide to the APA style and is not intended to replace the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6the edition. Only selected examples were chosen for inclusion here for other examples see printed manual.

The American Psychological Association (APA) is a widely used author-date system of referencing or bibliographic citations.  This guide covers basic explanations and examples for the most common types of citations used by students. This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) which is available at all UWS libraries. If you’re unable to find the referencing examples you require in this guide, more detailed information and examples can be found in the above publication.

APA requires that the information can be cited in two ways — within the text and in a reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list should be on a new page, double spaced, and use the indent hanging method (all lines after the first one are indented).

6.1 REFERENCING

Referencing acknowledges the source that you use to write your essay or project work.

In-text citations are used throughout your writing to acknowledge the source of your information. The full references for the citations are then listed at the end of your work in the reference list.

It is important to first consult your unit outline, lecturer or tutor for the preferred citation style for each unit you undertake.

6.2 IN-TEXT CITATION: REFERENCING SOURCES WITHIN THE TEXT

Throughout the text of your project, you need to acknowledge the sources used in your writing whenever you present a statement of evidence such as a quote, or when use someone else’s ideas, opinions or theories in your own words (phrasing), you must acknowledge your sources.

Note: when you summarize the general idea of a source in your own words, you must cite the author and year of publication of the work. APA does not require you to provide the page number unless you use a direct quote, however, if you paraphrase or summarize a specific section you should consider including the page number.

6.4 REFERENCE LIST

A reference list includes details of the sources cited in your project. It starts on a separate page at the end of your project and is titled References.  Each item cited in the reference list must have been cited in your work. All sources appearing in the reference list must be ordered alphabetically by surname.

In contrast to the reference list, a bibliography also includes details of sources not cited in your project WOR which were used to support your research.   While APA style does not use bibliographies you may sometimes be required to include one in addition to a reference list, this items should not be listed in alphabetic orders.

The reference list should be double spaced (no line spaces between references) with hanging indents used for the second or subsequent lines of each entry. A hanging indent is where the left line starts at the left margin and subsequent lines are indented (approx. 1.3cm or 5 spaces).

Italics is the preferred format for titles of books, journals and videos. Article and chapter titles are not italicized or put in quotation marks. Volume members are italicized but issue members are not.

Capitalization in APA style is very specific. For references, the following general rules apply- capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, and the first letter of the first word after a colon.

Eg: Federalism and the Nigerian state

 And Corruption in public services: Explanation of causes and solutions.

Pronouns, acronyms and abbreviations that are normally capitalized should be capitalized in the reference list and citations.

Examples of a reference list:

References:

  1. Andrea, N.C. (2001). Brave new brain: conquering mental illness in the era of the genome. Oxford university press.
  2. Akin, M. (Reporter). (2008, November 13). Bermagui disputed turf. The Hack Half Hour. Retrieved from http://www.ABC.net.ah/triplej/hack/note

6.5 ELECTRONIC ITEM

When referencing electronic sources it is necessary to provide details about the location of the item. Electronic sources should be referenced in the same format as for a “fixed-media source”, such as a book with DOI (digital abject identifier) included. Provide the URL if the item is freely accessible or the homepage URL if the access I restricted.

7.0 CONCLUSION

  • These are our main recommendations:
  • Record all relevant information generated by the project:
  • use a notebook,
  • keep a diary,
  • log debugging sessions.
  • Gather further material from publications or other external resources.
  • Organize the material into sections agreed with your supervisor, e.g. “Background”, and so on.
  • Turn this material into written prose to form the project report’s main body.
  • When writing the main body
  • keep your readership in mind;
  • identify commonality;
  • use sections and subsections;
  • follow stylistic conventions.
  • Where appropriate use cross-references,
  • references,
  • figures and other descriptive devices.
  • Produce all required supporting structures according to convention, after completing the main body, and include this material in appendices to avoid disrupting the flow of your narrative.
  • For examples to follow, look at textbooks from reputable publishers, the way this guide is written.
  • Discuss an outline of the project report with your supervisor before you begin to write up; this will help you to plan your project.

However, we strongly recommend that you write up your work as much as possible as you carry out your project, rather than leaving the writing to last.

We hope you will find this guide to be of value in completing your project.

An Assessment of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and Economic Relations Under Buhari’s Administration, 2015-2020

An Assessment of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and Economic Relations Under Buhari’s Administration, 2015-2020

Abstract

President Muhammadu Buhari who took over the mantle of Nigeria’s leadership from President Goodluck Jonathan undertook so many diplomatic visits as President-elect even before his official inauguration. After his being sworn-in on May 29, 2015, he undertook more visits to further launder the image of the country and diversify her foreign revenue sources..Just as his three predecessors, he effectively utilized Nigeria’s foreign policy and economic relations to attract foreign investors and other international business/development partners to do business in the country. Buhari’s administration maintained the status-quo of sustaining the influx of more FDI and other foreign revenues into the country; but still with the tip tilting more in favor of Oil and Gas (O&G). There was however underperformance of the country’s foreign policy where it failed to support its economic relations instrument for directing the attracted foreign capital (more particularly FDI) towards boosting the industrial and manufacturing sector and subsector of the economy. These critical sectors and sub-sector have the highest likelihood of expanding the country’s foreign revenue sources through the manufacture of unique products and goods in which Nigeria has a comparative advantage in the international market. It is this failure of Nigeria’s foreign policy to aid in re-directing all attracted foreign capital inflows towards manufacturing that motivate the study. The study is a qualitative one where data was analyzed through discourse and explanatory method. In the end, recommendations were made for effectively utilizing the country’s foreign policy for attracting more FDI that should be directed at the manufacture of unique products and goods that will expand Nigeria’s foreign revenue sources towards the general development of the domestic economy.

A critical analysis of the use of financial statement in assessing the performance of organization a study of Guarantee Trust Bank.

ABSTRACT

This project work is carried out to examine A critical analysis of the use of financial statement in assessing the performance of organization a study of Guarantee Trust Bank. The study was carried out to analyse how organizations and other stakeholders can make use of accounting ratios to critically analyse financial statements to evaluate organizational performance, using GTB.The analysis of financial disclosed that although investors and performance evaluation analysis reliced on financial statement in the decision and appraisal. The reliability of financial reports especially during inflation as in currently prevalent is not assured as a result of the historical cost convention as a basis for asset valuation; consequently, the use of these reports now in decision-making may lead to inadequate decisions.

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