In writing an abstract, the researcher needs to write on how he or she intends carrying out a study. The topic of this project is The Effect of Communication Gap in the Achievement of Organizational Goals using Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Onitsha as a case study. Having gone to the Nigeria Bottling Company Plc for a research on how I intend carrying out this work.
The objective of the work is to find out the extent to which the effect of communication Gap contributes to organizational peace/war.
The purpose of this study is as follows:
- Find out how effective communication is as one of the management function (its effects on smooth performance of an organization).
- To examine the most appropriate way for the smooth performance of an organization.
- The lack of proper communication facilities can hinder or promote passing information effectively in a given concept.
This method of data collection is mostly from primary sources, i.e. questionnaires will be administered to both executives and non executives’ staff of the organization.
This project is divided into five chapters with specific topics; chapter one deals with background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, scope and limitations of the study, statement of problems. It can be seen that the reader is immediately brought into the main body at the research work in this chapter.
Chapter two deals with the frame work, which consist of literature review, meaning of communication. Also the reader will learn about purpose of communication, importance process etc..
Chapter three will be based on the design of study which specifically deals with sources of data.
Chapter four will enable the reader to know how to present, analyzed the data.
Chapter five then consists of summary of findings, recommendations and conclusions.
My recommendations will be made in order to know whether it can help to overcome some of the problems of communication gap in achieving organizational goals.
1.1. Background of the study:
1.2. Statement of the problem:
1.3. Objectives of the study:
1.4. Research questions:
1.5. Significance of the study:
1.6. Scope of the study:
1.7. Limitation of the study:
1.8. Definition of terms:
2.0. Literature review:
2.2. Communication process:
2.3. Importance of communication:
2.4. Purpose of communication:
2.5. Barriers to effective communication in Nigeria Bottling Onitsha:
2.6. Types and methods of communication:
2.7. Ways of improving communication:
2.8. Conclusion and summary of review:
3.0. Research design and methodology:
3.2. Research designs:
3.3. Sources/methods of data collection:
3.4. Population and sample size:
3.5. Smaple and sampling procedure/techniques:
3.6. Validity and reliability of measuring instrument:
3.7. Method of data analysis:
4.1. Presentation and analysis of data:
4.2. Analysis of data:
4.3. Interpretation of result:
5.0. Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations
5.3. Suggestion for further research:
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Communication is a very vital tool in carrying out our day-to-day activities which makes the saying that if you don’t say here I am nobody will say there you are, unique and outstanding from every business firms world wide today. Everyone needs communication with people around to share experience jobs, frustration, hopes and fears. From childhood we all learn how to communicate, as children, we able to recognize and identify happiness and annoyance in our parent’s faces or words. And at school, we learn how to write and interpret number and diagram; we also come to understand the silent language of communication expressed in faces, gestures and body movement that is the body language of non verbal communication. This array of skills has helped us to be active members of the family, schools and work group.
It is only when people have come to know other through work, play and study that they prepared to open up and to trust others with a share of themselves, their inner though reactions and feeling.
According to Chester Bernard, the first executive function is to maintain a system of communication which is fundamental to the existence of any organization communication function. Which is the means by which social inputs are fed into social system or organization the means by which behaviour is modifies, changes is affected, information is made productive and goals are achieved be it in business, military etc.
Every organization is established to achieve a set objective for example, certain business organization are set up for profit making by the provision of goods and services. While others are up mainly for the provision of service by training high level of manpower for both in the public and private sector of the economy.
However, the defined objective of any organization have to be achieved through the instrumentality of individual person who from the basic unit of the organization. The people’s readiness to perform for the attainment of goals and objective of an organization.
As defined by Drucker, management is concerned with the direction and controls of an enterprise and involves planning and the direction of the work of others. These managerial functions cannot be successfully carried out in the absence of communication. Brown defined communication as the process of tramistting ideas and though one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the communication.
Drucker made the following statement. The manager has a specific tool, information. He does not “handle” people, he motivates, guides and organize people to do their own work. His tool to do this is the spoken or written work. No matter whether the manager’s job is engineer, accountant or marketing effectiveness to a large extent depends on his ability to listen and to read or his ability to speak and write. It needs skill in getting his thinking across to other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are after.
The above contribution by Drucker implies that communication is needed to convey information necessary for an on going operation and secondly that communication can have a impact on the attitude of people in the organization and consequently on the general performance of the organization. Managers spend a lot of there time in order to co-ordinate human and physical resources of an organization into effective and efficient working unit. It is only when the human and material element of an organization is harnessed into a working whole that the objective goals of the organization can be achieved.
Before any organization decision can be made relevant information, fact feeling and ideas must be communicated within all organization. In relevant years, communication has been tippled as a management function because of its growing importance in large organization and also because it has been realized that communication is not forced but has to be learnt.
Language, which is deemed the most important tool of communication in organsiation have many features which limit their assembly in communication. Available statistics show that there are than three language in Lagos State alone while the entire nation is said to have about 3000 different langaue. It was observed that in the organization where this research was carried out, workers were selected from almost all the ethnic group in Nigeria with different social and cultural backgrounds.
This shows that the rate of communicating effectively in organization cannot be predicted correctly. As S.I Hayakawg had it, the meaning of words is in the words, they are in use and no word has exactly the same meaning.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The problem of communication between persons, organization and the society as a whole can be classified into four;
I. PEOPLE DO NOT KNOW HOW TO COMMUNICATE: There are proper channels of communication, they are channels by which communication should be forwarded to the subordinates. An important need of a worker is to be informed about what is happening around him in his work place. Communication and information therefore are mutually satisfactory relationship between an employer and the employee.
II. NO AVAILABILITY OF PROPER COMMUNICATION FACILITIES: There are no proper facilities for communicating due to the fact that the infrastructural facilities are not efficient, for instance, the telephone facilities are not functional and the time, the radio messages, fax etc. are not working.
III. PEOPLE ARE IGNORANT OF WHAT TO COMMUNICATE: Instead of communicating what is expected to be communicated, people do not know the organizational goals are, so they tend to direct their attention on what would not maximize the organization goals.
IV. PEOPLE ARE IGNORANT OF THE NEED TO COMMUNICATE: People normally imply that the lower hierarchy knows what to do but sometimes the subordinate needs to be advised on what to do before they can do it the way the upper hierarchy wants it to be done.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
From all that has written above, it is this aim of this study to take a segment of the seaport (Nigeria Port Authority) and study the impact of communication and the achievement of its goals.
i. To find out how effective communication is one of the management functions, that is the impact on the smooth running of the organization.
ii. To examine the communication methods and find out the most appropriate way for the smooth performance of the organization.
iii. How lack of proper communication facilities can hinder and or promote passing information effectively between and among people in organization.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
1. Of what impact has effective communication have to do with running an organization?
2. Is there adequate consultation between management and union?
3. What communication methods is appropriate for something performance of an organization?
4. Are duties delegated in your organization?
5. How can inadequate communication facilities hinder the effectiveness performance of posing information among people in organization?\
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
Having stated the problems, the significance of this research is the extent to which it tries to identify and provide solution to surmount some of the problems. It is hoped that the organization used as a study and other organization, individual, and association will benefit from the research result and findings as well as the recommended situation.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The scope of this study is very wide if it has to carry out in all the seaports in the country. This study covers the activities of the Lagos Ports Complex (LPC), Apapa Quays (APO).
In this study, attempt was made to examine the impact of communication gap the achievement of organizational goal.
1.7. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
The study is limited based on the fact that there is no time and material resources to cover the whole nation. This study is limited to Lagos Port Complex (LPC) Apapa Quays (APQ) and the findings may not reflect the situation in the whole country. These findings may not be valid for the whole part in Nigeria, but by and large what happens in the ports in Apapa Quays can be said to apply to other seaport in the country.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS:
The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean the following;
1. COMMUNICATION: It can be defined as a means of transfer of idea, information, facts thought and understanding from one person to another.
2. CO-OPERATION: This is the understanding that exists between a group of individual which makes them get unifies in pursuance of a common goal.
3. INFORMATION: This is something, which give knowledge in form of facts.
4. EFFECTIVENESS: This can be defined as the ability or power to have a noticeable or desired impact effect.
5. IMPACT: This is the force exerted by one object when striking another.
6. MOTIVATION: This term can be defined as the act or state of being motivated need and purpose.
7. ATTITUDE: This is the position of manner of standing of body a manner of feeling and behaving.
8. GAP: Is an empty space between two objects or between two part of an object.
9. PRODUCTIVITY: This is the measured ability to grow things or the calculated of making goods.
10. PRODUCTIVITY RATIO: The ratio between the goods and services produced in relation to resources employed.
11. IDEA: A picture in the mind or an opinion
12. ENCODE: Turn a message into codes and agreed arrangement by which certain signs are given a special secret.