THE EFFECT OF PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ON ORGANIZATION SALES (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ABA BRANCH)

ABSTRACT
The research was conducted on the basis of an analysis of the marketing effect of product life cycle in achieving organizational sales objective of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Aba Abia state. The objectives were stated to ascertain and evaluate the marketing efforts of product life cycle in the cosmetic and detergent industry. In order to critically examine this. Therefore the researcher set out to ascertain the following objectives.
Firstly, to find out whether Unilever Nigeria Plc conduct thorough market research before embarking on developing its product.
Secondly, to determine whether Unilever Nigeria Plc follows the formal procedure or sequences of product development process (Ideas generation business analysis – concept of product testing product developing test marketing commercialization).
Last but not the least, to find out if product life cycle is useful in the achievement of marketing performance of Unilever Nigeria Plc. In the literature review, the research review some literature in the area of marketing like: concept of marketing, product life cycle and its stages, critiques of product life cycle concept and a brief comparative analysis of Plc BCG and adopter categories were made.
In research methodology and design, the researcher adopted both descriptive and analytical method in carrying out his sample survey research. Data were collected through primary and secondary method and/or sources. A yaro yamen formula was use to get sample size. Also a stratified random sampling technique in choosing the sample size was used. This was because all the units have equal chances of being considered. In chapter four, data were presented and analyzing. Using simple table and chi square in analyzing the data respondents were presented in table and result of data analyze in percentage one after another.
Finally in the last chapter, the researcher made his summary, conclusion and recommendations which make the end of the project.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research design
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Concepts of marketing
2.3 New product development stages
2.4 Concept of product life cycle
2.5 Stage in product life cycle
2.6 Marketing effects of product life cycle
2.7 Critiques of product life cycle
2.8 A brief comparative analysis of the relationship between Plc, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) and adopter categories
References
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research design and methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research design
3.3 Source/method of data collection
3.4 Population and sample size
3.5 Determination of sample size
3.6 Sampling techniques
3.7 Validity and reliability of measurement instrument
3.8 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Presentation of data
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Test of hypothesis
4.5 Interpretation of result
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
An increasing number of people are questioning whether product life cycle concept has a value to business enterprise and useful role in the attainment of the marketing performance of the detergent industry. It has been opined that the usefulness or other wise of the product life cycle concept has been the subject of an un-abating marketing discourse. Is the product life cycle useful? Has been the questions at issues.
Product life cycle is a marketing phenomenon which seeks to recognized various stages, a product passes in its sales history. It is also a graphic representation of the sequential rise and fall of a product sales and profits. An important concept in the product planning forecasting, controlling and development process is that the product life cycle. No product last forever, products are originated, developed and launched. The concept means that a company’s positioning and differentiation strategy must change as the product, market and competition change over the product life cycle. It should be noted that some product pass through the cycle stage faster than others.
In order to understand this concept, (product life cycle) vividly, and to fully appreciate its effects to be marketing as discussed in the literature review. This study determines the concept as representing the unit sales trend or curve for some products, extending from the time it is first placed in the market until it is faced out. In other words, the concept describes the evaluation of a product overtime, as measure by its sales or percentage saturation, and explain its stages with models as exemplified by Unilever Nigeria Plc. Some companies move through the cycle very rapidly, other never make it through the introductory stage of the growth period but Unilever Nigeria Plc has moved steadily and predictably through each stage to the maturity. Unilever produces a lot of products but “OMO” multi Actives, will be structured for the purpose of this study.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Unilever Plc is one of detergent and cosmetic company of the industry with the sole aim of teaching and satisfying the entire public with its qualify products, and it was incorporated as private company in 11th April 1924 under the name lever brother (WA) Plc which was later metamorphosed to West African Soap Company Plc on 3rd April 1973. This name was changed again to Lever Brothers Nigeria Plc on 15th December 1985 and was later changed to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 1992.
The company’s headquarter is situated at Apapa Lagos and it was commissioned in 1942. manufacturing at the factory started with the production of bar soaps, using palm oil, but as time goes on, it was extended to toilet soaps including international brand Lux and Relaxers, Astral and Asepo.
The company’s main business over the year has be diversified into manufacturing of blue band and plant margarine, Omo and Surf, a non soapy detergents, pepsovent and close – up tooth pastes and three top fruit syaush. The well – known sun light and key laundering soap are also manufactured by the company. The company was converted into a public company on 12th September, 1973 and its share capital was listed on the Nigeria stock exchange (NSE).
Unilever Nigeria Plc has seven department: production, marketing/sales department, accounting, purchasing, administrative department and research and development departments. All work synergistically to achieve set objectives. Unilever also has branches both in Nigeria under which Aba branch fall and in other parts of the world like Ghana.

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