1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In an organization, there are two discernable groups of workers – the superiors and the subordinates. The superiors or managers are require to guide and at the same time motivate the subordinates by raising their zeal to carry out their assigned tasks. This is the managerial function of directing which is concerned with the human factor of the organization and whose process is to initiate and move subordinates to act in accordance with the planned mission of the organization. It involves guiding and supervising the on-the-job performance and responsibilities of subordinates. Management authors see directing as involving three (3) elements namely leadership, motivation and communication. Therefore, leadership is a factor in the managerial function of directing aimed at organizational performance.
To lead means to guide, conduct, direct, proceed and to show the way, by doing what you want others to do first. Conceptually leadership can be defined as the ability
to lead. Copper and William (1990), leadership is the act of process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals. It is also the process of influencing others to work willingly and to the best of their capabilities towards the goals of the leader. Leadership involves the ability to use different forms of power to influence employee behaviours in a number of ways either positively or negatively. Leadership involves others, in other words, leadership involves followers. The followers may be superior, peers as well as subordinates. By their willingness to follow, accept direction from the leader, group members help define the leader’s status and make the leadership process possible. Leadership is a narrower activity, a tool of management and a technique for influencing people in an organization. Managerial ability is always an asset to the leader who can acquire it.
Employee performance is an important building block of an organization. Organization cannot progress by one or two individual’s efforts but by the collective efforts of all
members of the organization performance is a multi-dimensional construct aimed to achieve results and have a strong link to strategic goals of the organization. (Mwita, 2000). Performance is a vital feature of an organization. Leaders at all the level have to input their efforts and make maximum use of the abilities which sometimes are produced under supervision or without it. Latest studies provide that organizations invest heavily in Human Resource Development interventions to updates and skill employees inorder to attain job performance. Currently leadership is widely recognized and verified through research. Leaders can influence the people and motivate them (Popper, 2005). Effective leadership increases human capability and ensures competitive advantages. Leadership helps in identifying and managing team where group development and specifically personal development and growth of managers also take place.
Leadership is a core issue in Nigeria both at the Federal, State and Local Government. It transcedes every level. Bad leadership leads to disintegration, anarchy and
chaos. Leadership is essential to the prosperity, productivity, survival and performance or otherwise of any organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Management effectiveness refers to how best organizational goals are achieved.