Content Page
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Appendices xiv
Abbreviations xv
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objective of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 10
1.9 Outline of the Study 11
2.1 Human Capital 13
2.2 The Evolution of Human Capital Development 17
2.3 Human Capital Development 24
2.4 Empirical Review of Human Capital Development as
A Catalyst for Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Public Sector 33
2.5 Indices for Measuring Human Capital 39
2.6 Challenges of Human Capital Development 39
2.7 Human Capital Development in Public Service 41
2.8 The Role of Training in Human Capital Development 45
2.9 The Effects of Training on Service Delivery in Public Service 48
2.1.0 Training in the Nigerian Public Service 55
2.1.1 Service Delivery 61
2.1.2 Empirical Review of Service delivery 62
2.1.3 Peculiarity of Service Delivery in Nigeria 64
2.1.4 Human Capital Development in Other Nations of the World 65 Cooperative Systems 67 FDI-Dependent Training Strategies 68 State-Driven strategy 69 Enterprise Based Training Strategy 72 Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) 72
2.1.5 Gaps in Literature 75
2.1.6 Conceptual Model 77
2.1.7 Theoretical Framework 78
3.1 The establishment of the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria 86
3.2 Training Facility and Courses 88
3.3 The Reorganisation of ASCON 89
3.4 Organizational Structure and Staff Strength 90
3.5 Other Training Institution and its impact on ASCON 91
3.6 Challenges 93
4.1 Research Design 94
4.2 Population 94
4.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 95
4.4 Method of Data Collection 97
4.5 Sources of Data 97
4.6 Research Instrument 97
4.7 Validity of Instrument 98
4.8 Reliability and Instrument 99
4.9 Method of Data Analysis 99
4.1.0 Ethical Consideration 99
5.1 Administration of Questionnaire 101
5.2 Descriptive Statistics 102
5.3 Demographic Analysis of the Trainees 108
5.4 Data Analysis according to Research Hypotheses 119
5.5 Discussion of Findings 135
5.5.1 Research Question 1: How relevant is ASCON’s training programme/project
to the functions and responsibilities of the different MDAs between
2003 and 2014? 135
5.5.2 Research Question 2: To what extent has there been integration of acquired
skills on leadership, financial and project management by former trainees? 138
5.5.3 Research Question 3: How has the utilization of knowledge on facilities
Management and ICT use by former trainees improved service delivery
in their MDAs? 140
5.5.4 Research Question 4: Is there a relationship between training acquired and
competence, courtesy and credibility in the public service 143
5.5.5 Research Question 5: What are the factors inhibiting the effective delivery
of human capital development programmes of ASCON 145

Content Page
6.1 Summary 149
6.2 Conclusion 151
6.3 Recommendations 152
6.4 Contribution to Knowledge 156
6.5 Limitation of the Study 156
6.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 157
References 158
Appendices 173

Table Page
2.1 Strategies employed in selected Countries 74
3.1 ASCON’s staff by Grade level and category 91
4.1 List of selected Ministries, Departments and Agencies 96
5.1 Descriptive indices of the Trainees from the 12 selected Ministries and
Agencies 102
5.2 Distribution of Departments/Units Sampled from each MDA 103
5.3 Frequency Distribution of the MDAs 105
5.4 Categories of trainees who have attended ASCON training in the last ten years 106
5.5 Number and percentage of trainees who had attended ASCON
training in the last four years 107
5.6 Gender Distribution of the Respondents 108
5.7 Age Distribution of Respondents 108
5.8 Distribution work experience(in years) 109
5.9 Distribution of the rate at which trainees are transferred within
Departments in the MDAs 109
5.10 Distribution of Trainees that has been transferred between MDAs 109
5.11 Percentage ranking of ASCON training programs by trainees 110
5.12 Distribution of Designations 111
5.13 Distribution of ASCON Courses attended by Public Servants 112
5.14 Reliability Test on the Metrics for ASCON’s Human Capital Development
Programmes 113
5.15 Correlation Matrix of ASCON’s Human Capital Development
programmes and Public service delivery 114
5.16 Relevance of ASCON’s training to trainees duties 115
5.17 ANOVA (Analysis of variance of the Courses) 116

Table Page
5.18 Post Hoc Test 117
5.19 Correlation Analysis of the Impact of the Courses on Duties 119
5.20 Supervisors’ rating of trainees before and after training 120
5.21 Was there training need identification awareness before your staff was sent
On training? 121
5.22 Was there a thorough needs analysis carried out before your staff was sent on
training? 122
5.23 Paired Sample Statistics 123
5.24 Analysis of Variance of the assessment of trainees by Supervisors 123
5.25 Directional measures of impact of ASCON training programmes on leadership ,
financial and management skills acquired 124
5.26 Symmetric Measures 124
5.27 How will you rate the practicability of the knowledge acquired on facilities management and ICT use after training .( Cross Tabulation) 126
5.28 Correlation Analysis of the facilities management and ICT use 127
5.29 Customer’s perception of public service delivery in terms of improvement
in the last 11 years 128
5.30 Aspects of the Products/ Services customers are not satisfied with 129
5.31 Correlation Analysis 130
5.32 Cross Tabulation of Correlation Analysis 131
5.33 Regression Analysis 133
5.34 Model Summary 134
5.35 ANOVA 135

Figure Page
2.1 HRM Model 21
2.2 Conceptual Model 77
5.1 A pie chart showing the distribution of Departments/ Units from each MDA 104
5.2 A pie chart showing the Frequency distribution of the MDAs 106


Appendix Page
1 Informed Consent Form 173
2 Questionnaire on Training Impact Assessment in the Nigerian 174
Public Service
3 BUHREC’s notification of approval 180
4 Interview Guide 181
5 The Organogram of the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria 187

ASCON Administrative Staff College of Nigeria
HCD Human Capital Development
MDA Ministries, Departments and Agencies
MDI Management Development Institute
OHSOF Office of the Head of Service of the Federation
CONRAISS Consolidated Research and Allied Institutions Salary Structure

1.1 Background to the Study
The concern of human capital and subsequently its development has been a recurrent global issue because of the major role it plays in the achievement of growth and development which has been a major challenge for African governments as a whole and to Nigeria in particular. The role of human resources in achieving organisational objectives cannot be over emphasized; infact, the ability of any organisation, the public service inclusive, in implementing its strategy and achieving its goals and objectives depend on whether it can organize, develop and manage its human resources effectively. It is in recognition of this fact that Carlson (1994) opined that any organisation that aspires to a positive change or improved quality in service delivery would as a matter of necessity, strive to acquire quality human resources.
Human capital development originated approximately half a century ago under the leadership of Jacob Mincer, Theodore Schultz, and Gary Becker. It is “human” because it is embodied in man, and it is “capital” because it is a source of future satisfaction, or of future earnings, or of both (Schultz, 1971 p.48). It takes into consideration investment activities and processes that produce vocational and technical education, knowledge, skills, health or values that are embodied in people. It implies building an appropriate balance and critical mass of human resource base and providing an enabling environment for all individuals to be fully engaged and contribute to goals of an organisation or a nation. Any effort to increase human knowledge, enhance skills, productivity and stimulate resourcefulness of individuals is an effort of human capital development (Enyekit, Amaehule&Teerah, 2011). Human capital has its origins in classical economics. The notion of human capital goes back to Adam Smith. He was of the view that human capital was part and parcel of economic wealth creation and development and held that human beings should be perceived as capital.
Economists have written extensively on the of role human capital in development:


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